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1653 Eojl Main Street 

Rocnester, Ne» York 14609 uSA 

(716) 482 - 0300 - P(,one 

(716) 288 -5989 -Fax 



DAVID SMITH, m.a.. d.d. 

froftmr of Tktclcgy in ike UcCrta Magee CclUge, Londondtrty 


8ICOND aoinoN 



This volume-except the Introduction. Chapter 

r\ o ^'^ 'P^^^" ** **»« «l^e of the 
CoUege Session, and Chapters VII and VIII— 

is composed of lectures which I delivered at 

T^^^^ ""^ ^^^ P'^'^* y«" on the 
2»myth Memonal Foundation. 

« ^ll Ti^ ""^ ^^^ ^^ ^^- ^^f^^r Richard 
Smyth, D.D., M.P., is remembered and revered 
not only in the Presbyterian Church but 
throughout Ireland. He was a truly remark- 
able man endowed with many gifts and gnices, 
and m the course of his too brief career he 
played vanous parts. He was a preacher, a 
professor and a politician ; and in each capacity 
he won distinction. *^ ^ 

l!^^ ^"-^^"cated at Glasgow, Belfast, 
London, and Bonn, acquiring thus that larce- 
ness of outlook and catholicity of sympa^y 



which experience of the world brings to a 
man, yet retaining to the last a steai' ^'>valty 
to the faith of his fathers. His mim. . ^gau 
in 1855 at the little town of Westport, in 
Co. Mayo, immortalised by Thackeray in his 
Irig/i Sketch Book (published in 1848). "It 
forms an event in one's life to have seen that 
place, so beautiful is it, and so unlike all other 
beauties thnt I know of. Were such a bay 
lying u[in English shores, it would be a worid's 
wonder. Perhaps, if it .vere on the Mediter- 
ranean or the Baltic, English travellers would 
iock to it by hundreds: why not come and 
see it in Ireland?" The Presbyterian con- 
gregation of Westport was numerically small, 
but, like many another in the remote South 
and West, it was composed of intelligent, 
kindly. God-fearing folk, mostly of Scottish 
descent; and tlicy recognised and appreciated 
the qualities of their young minister. The 
fame of his eloquence was noised abroad, and 
in 1857 he was called to the pastorate of the 
large and influential congregation of First 
Derry. This charge he held, with conspicuous 
and ever increasing distinction, until the year 
1865, when he was appointed by the General 


«d Hemieneutic, m the Magee College. Deny. 

Hi, closing year, „^ a,^ 
"> h.» ca««r. stimd to indignation by a Zt 
'^ng-.. the condition of the das, from w^h 

of Undlorda "-^l^'^ ^^;:^Zt 


elected senior Member nf ^ r "^"^ 

oTc„i:r °i s^v"^" '^ the^t: 

*fflcnl?'J:i„tc^°^ r 8««'. '"'d 't is 
Wbution to th^lcgi^i^^;^ """^ '»- 


The Smj'th Lectureship was founded as a 
memorial of him in 187d ; and, by the courtesy 
of my friend the Rev. James McGranahan, 3. A., 
the present incumbent, these lectures were 
delivered from his old pulpit in First Deny 

4, The CoLLKaR, Londonubrrt. 


nuEVAca . 


ihtkoouctiok: r; valu. « th. ckwhittkn 





■ coMnre aoaiw 










«: I 

S I 


OUR SAcnRn trust 





. 9U 

. 115 




nrDEXEs ..... 

. ISl 

. 145 

" - 




I f 

"Gather up the fragments that remain, that nothing 
be lost." 

St. John vi. 12. 



QUR Blessed Lord spent the three years of 
V-' Hj earthly ministry in going about doing 
good and preaching the Gospel of the ». 
Kingdom of Heaven ; and the Evan- SS<«« 
gehsts have recorded for all time the ^^J^ 
story of that wondrous visitation of God Thev 
have told us much, aU that we need to know 
an,ply sufficent for our establishment in fdtt 
and peace and hope; yet what they have toM 
us ,s only as a gleaning of the rich harvest, mere 
drops of the abundant rain* "Many oTC 
s<gns, says St. John,t "did Jesus in the 

■ •^S'' ^'' "I'Tsostom on St. Matt. Iv 24 fff™ ■ > 
Ob8,rve the conciseneM of the Evm~ 1^,^ : ^T^' 
-t n„r.te to „. e„h p.„io,„„ .^T^^Xu. h°^ 

t XX. 30, 31. 

Vnierittm Savingt. 




presence of the disciples, which are not written 
in this book : but these are written, that ye 
may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son 
of God ; and that believing ye may have life 
in His name." What he had written was 
enough for that supreme end, yet he would 
fain have written all, and nothing restrained 
him but the impossibility of the task. " There 
are also many other things which Jesus did, 
the which if they should be written every 
one, I suppose that even the world itself 
would not contain the books that should be 
written." * 

\^ iiat is written is enough, yet, in no spirit 

of idle curiosity or discontentment with the 

providence of God, we desire to know 


otherwise morc, especially of the words which 
fell from His blessed lips who spake 
as never man spake. And it is possible, in 
some measure, to gratify this desire ; for it has 
chanced that, apart from the Evangelists, some 
fragments of our Lord's teaching have been 
preserved. One is found in the Acts of the 
Apostles t — that golden saying which St. Paul 
quoted in his farewell to the Elders of Ephesus : 

[i. 25. 

t IX. 35. 


" In all things I gave you an example, how that 
so labouring ye ought to help the weak, and 
to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, how 
He Himself said, It is more blessed to give 
than to receive." Nor is this all. Here and 
there, in ancient manuscripts, in the works of 
the Fathers, and in other and often surprising 
quarters, we find sayings ascribed, with more 
or less probability, to our Blessed Lord. 

It is an office of reverence to Him that we 
should gather up those fragments and lose 
nothing which may increase our know- ^^ 
ledge of Him and His teachinff • nor »ppr«datton 
need we be deterred by any fear lest *" "" ^*^ 
we should derogate from the authority and 
sufficiency of those golden records, "wherein 
Christ sits enthroned."* The Fathers who 
freely adduce unwritten sayings of the Master, 
held the Holy Scriptures in high and ^^^^ 
reverent esteem ; and it is remarkable J^^""""* 

. 1 . . . to the 

tnat It was an unwritten saying that *»p«i«- 
they were accustomed to employ in order to 
enforce the duty of scrupulous care in dis- 
tinguishing "the divine words " from apocryphal 

* St. IrensBUS, III. xi. 11 : ra liayyiXia . . . iv olc iyKadtierai 



counterfeits.* There are some of those precious 
fragments which are weU attested and may be 
confidently accepted as genuine ; and these it 
were impiety to slight. And even such as are 
doubtftil claim our consideration, since at the 
least they iUustrate the thoughts of the early 
Church regarding her Lord and ours, and pre- 
serve the spirit, if not the language, of His 

And it is assuredly no part of the reverence 
which we owe to the Holy Scriptures that we 
onriord-* ^^°"'^ account everything outside of 
S!2!:«. tl^eir canon profane. Such was in no 
to«ttoai«i wise the manner of our Lord ; and 
of this there are two striking evi- 
dences which may be profitably considered 

One is that He had a high regard for 
that gracious book, the most beautiful of the 
HUnMof apocryphal scriptures of the Jews— 
ofBcoieti- the Book of Ecclesiasticus. whiVh 

uttoni. •.. . ""it'll 

was written in t'e first quarter of 
the second century by another Jesus— Jesus the 
son of Sirach. There are several distinct echoes 
of it in His teaching. 

* See p. 108. 



Thus, it is written by the Son of Sirach : ♦ 

"Draw near unto me, ye unlearned, 
And lodge in the house of instruction. 
Say, wherefore are ye lacking in these things. 
Ajid your souls are very thirsty? 
I opened my mouth, and spake. 
Get her for yourselves without money. 
Put your neck imder the yoke. 
And let your soul receive instruction : 
She is hard at hand to find. 
Behold with your eyes, 
How that I laboured but a little, 
And found for myself much rest." 

And our Lord says : t " Come unto Me, aU ye 
that labour and are heavy laden, and I will 
give you :est. Take My yoke upon you, and 
leam of Me ; for I am meek and lowly in heart : 
and ye shall find rest unto your souls. For 
My yoke is easy, and My burden is light." 
Again, the Son of Sirach says : | 

"There is that waxeth rich by his wariness and pinching. 
And this is the portion of his reward : 
When he saith, I have found rest. 
And now will I eat of my goods ; 
Yet he knoweth not what time shall pass, 
And he shall leave them to others, and die." 

* IL 28-27. 

t St. Matt. xi. 28-30. 
I xi. 18, 19. 




This our Lord took and turned into a parable : * 
" The ground of a certain rich man brought 
forth plentifuUy : and he reasoned within him- 
self, saying. What shall I do, because I have 
not where to bestow my fruits ? And he said. 
This Willi do : I wiU pull down my bams, and 
build greater ; and there wiU I bestow aU my 
com and my goods. And I will say to my 
soul. Soul, thou hast much goods laid up for 
many years ; take thine ease, eat, drink, 
be merry. But God said unto him. Thou foolish 
one, this night is thy soul required of thee; 
and the things which thou hast prepared, whose 
shall they be ? " 

Again, the Son of Siracli says : t 

" Prate not in the multitude of elders ; 
And repeat not thy words in thy prayer." 

And our Lord says :| «' In praying use not vain 
repetitions, as the Gentiles do : for they think 
that they shaU be heard for their much speaking " 
Again, the Son of Sirach says : § 

"In?r *'7^°*''f^^"^ *^« ^^ that he hath done thee; 
And then thy sina shaU be pardoned when thou prayest." 

* St. Luke xii. 16-21. 
t St. Matt. vi. 7. 

t vii. 4. 
§ xxviii 2. 


And our Lord says ; ♦ "If ye forgive men their 
trespasses, your Heavenly Father will also for- 
give you. But if y- forgive not men their 
trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your 
trespasses." "Whensoever ye stand praying, 
forgive, if ye have aught against any one ; that 
your Father also which is in Heaven may forgive 
you your trespasses." 
Once more, the Son of Sirach says : t 

" Forsake not an old friend ; 
For the new is not comparable to hira : 
As new wine, so is a new friend ; 
If it become old, thou shalt drink ',t with gladness." 

And our Lord says: J "No man having drunk 
old wine desireth new: for he saith. The old 
is good." 

It was doubtless only the lateness of its 
appearance that excluded the Book of Ecclesi- 
asticus from the canon of the Old Testament ; 
but whatever be the reason, it is included in 
the category of apocryphal writings, and the 
instructive fact is that our Lord did not disdain 
it on this account. It was ever His gracious 

* St. Matt. vi. 14, 15 ; St. Marl. xi. 25. 
t ix. 10. J St. Luke V. 88. 

J ii 





manner to perceive the worth of things which 
the world despised.* and He has raised that 
ancient book from its low estate and crowned 
It with honour. 

The se.iond evidence of our Lord's habit of 
counting nothing unclean and employing in His 
HfuMof teaching material which lay outside 
the sacred canon, is yet more sur- 
prising, and claims our attention the 
more since it seems to have escaped notice 

r.1^- ' '^^"'^ *''*^'"°° preserved by the Mohammedan 
poet mzimi (see Zwemer. The Moslem Christ, p. 148) s 

"One evening Jesus lingered in the market-place 
Teachmg the people parables of truth and grace 
When in the square remote a crowd was seen to rise 
And stop with loathing gesture, and abhorring cries 
The Master and His meek disciples went to see 
What cause for this commotion and disgust could be 
And found a poor dead dog beside the gutter laid • ' 
Revolting sight I at which each face its hate betrayed 
One held hU nose, one shut his eyes, one turned away 
And all among themselves began aloud to say 
Detested creature 1 he pollutes the earth and'airl' 
His eyes are blear I • ' His ears are foul J ' 'His ribs are 
bare I ' 

'In his torn hide there's not a decent shoe-string left I' 
No doubt the execrable cur was hung for theft I ' 

l^ten Jesus spake and dropped on him this saving wreath • 
Even pearls are dark before the whiteness of hi.' 



hitherto. In His popular te^-hin;* He was 
accustomed to quote common proverbs— homely 
maxims which were -^uch on the Hps of His 
hearers, and which served to bring 
His heavenly lessons home to their ^SS' 
understandings. And the curious fact •'*"*• 
is that several of those phrases occur in the 
Fables of Msop and derive their significance 
from their context there. 

The most remarkpblc instance is Hi« protest 
against the unreasonableness of the Jews as 
exhibited in their behaviour first 
toward John the Baptist and then %Z' 
toward Himself.* John was an "^•™" ': 
ascetic, and they had resented his austerity 
Jesus was the Friend of Siimers, and went to 
their houses and sat at their tables, and they 
were shocked at His laxity and caUed Him "a 
gluttonous man and a winebibber." There was 
no pleasing them. « Whereunto," He asks, 
"shaU I Uken this generation? It is like unto 
children sitting in the marketplaces, which call 
unto their fellows, and say, We piped unto you, 
and ye did not dance ; we wailed, and ye did 
not mourn." Turn to iEsop's Fable of « The 

♦ St. Matt. xi. 16-18. 



I ' K 

Piping Fisherman," * and you discover the origin 
of this phrase: "A fisherman skilled in piping 
took his pipes and hii nets, and went to the 
seaside, and s* nding on a jutting rock first feU 
a-playing, thii. ng that the fish would come out 
of their own accord at the sweet strain, t Biit 
when nothing came of aU his exertion, he laid 
by the pipes and took up the net and let it 
down into the water, and caught many fishes. 
He cast them from the net upon the beach 
and when he beheld them gasping, he said ': 
•You wretched creatures! when I piped, you 
did not dance; I but now when I have given 
over, you are doing it.' " 

That same passage furnishes another instance 
In the course of His vindication of John the 
(a)«Th. ^^P^ist our Lord asked the multi- 
SiSrir *"^^-§ "What went ye out into 
the wilderness to behold? A reed 
shaken ^ith the wind?" This is a proverbial 
description of a time-server-one who acts upon 
the Scottish maxim: "Jouk, and let the jaw 

♦ 'AXiEis aiXHy, Fab. 27 in Halm's edition. 

t In emulation of Orpheus. 

t V«'C» ^« /tiy iliXmty, oix up^ftoQt. 

8 St. Matt xL 7. 



g«c bye"*; and the origin of the phrase is 
iEsop's Fable of "The Reed and the Olive- 
tree "t : "A reed and an olive-tree had a con- 
tention on the score of stoutness and repose 
and strength. The reed was taunted by the 
olive-tree for being impotent and easily boi* ^ 
to all the winds. The reed spoke never a word. 
And when it had endured a little, a mighty 
wind arose, and the reed was shaken and bowed 
with the winds | and easily escaped safe ; but 
the olive-tree, since it resisted the winds, was 
uprooted and broken." 

It by no means follows that a written 
collection of iEsop's Fables was known in 
Palestine, and that our Lord quoted „__^ 
xrom It The fact, m all likelihood, «»>*>«^ 
is that the old Phrygian sage never wrote a 

That is, ' Duck, and let tho wave paw over you." Cf. 
the anecdote of James Guthrie, the Scottish martyr, Crom- 
well's •• short man who would not bow " : '* un one of these 
occasionj, when the prospect of persecution for the truth was 
most menacing, Mr. Rollock, the minister of Perth, a jocose 
man, said to him one day, 'We have a Scottish proverb 
" Jouk that the wave mey go o'er you " : will ye jouk a little, 
Mr. Guthrie P* 'Mr. Rollock.' replied the other gravely, 
' there is no jouking in the cause of Christ.' " 

t KaXa/ioc «foi 'EXala, Fab. 1796. 

I i fiiv KAXafJos fftiiretlt ical vwoKXtOtls rol( aifftois. 




book. As late as Aristophanes' day his fables 
circulated orally,* and the first who essayed the 
task of putting them into literary form appears 
to have been Socrates, t and he never completed 
it ; indeed, he executed only a single fable, and 
that not very successfully.^ In our Lord's day 
they belonged to the common VoUcskunde of 
the East, and He employed them in His teach- 
ing because they were so familiar to His hearers 
and appealed so directly to their hearts.§ 

This was the manner of our Lord, and it was 
the manner also of the sacred writers. They 

* Veap. 1259-60 : 

AitruwiKor yiXoiov ^ 2v/5ap«rnc(5K, 
uv efiaOcc iv rj» (ni/ixoiri^. 

t Plat. PTuBd. 6lB. 

+ Diog, Laert. ii. 42. 

§ Several of the epimythia or "morals" are expressed in 
Hcriptural language. E.g., Fab. 391 : "Of those who serve 
two masters and deceive both " (cf. St. Matt. vi. 24) ; Fab. 
395 : "The story shows that with what measure one metes, 
it shall be measured to him again" (cf. St. Matt. vii. 2)'; 
Fab. 21 : " The fable shows that the Lord resisteth the proud* 
but giveth grace to the lowly " (cf. Prov. iii. 84 ; James iv. 6 '; 
1 Pet. V. 5). There is, however, no significance in this, since' 
the epimythia do not belong to the original fables ; they were 
added by Planudes or some other monkish editor in the 
Middle Ages. Cf. Bentley's D-isaertation upon tlie Fablea of 
^8op {Works, vol. ii. pp. 222 ff.). 



*• spake from God, being moved by the Holy 
Spirit";* yet the historians of Israel had no 
scruple in borrowing verses from the 
Book of Jashar — an ancient collection canonical 
of national songs which has perished SbmJ'^ 
and would be unknown but for their "*^'*"* 
references to it.t And a Christian Apostle 
deemed it no impiety to quote from that Jewish 
apocalypse, the Book of Enoch.^ 

From all this it appears how contrary it is 
at once to the example of our Lord and to 
the Scriptural idea of Inspiration to 
account as unclean whatever lies out- wSS?" 
side the sacred canon. It is no true '"°*^" 
reverence for the Holy Scriptures ; it is, indeed, 
the very spirit which St. Hilary of Poictiers 
has justly designated "irreligious solicitude for 
God," § and which is continually rebuked by the 
Holy Spirit, who oftentimes works by strange 
instruments and chooses unlikely channels for 
His grace. "To the sacred literature indeed," 

* 2 Pet. i. 21. 

t Josh. X. 13 ; 2 Sam. i. 18. 

t Jude 14, 15 ; cf. Enoch i. 9. On the influence of this 
book upon the New Testament see Charles' edition, pp. 41 ff. 

§ De Tnn. iv. 6 : " O stultos atque impios metus, et 
irreligiosam de Deo sollicitudinem 1 " 



says Erasmus* "the first authority is every- 
where due ; nevertheless I occasionally stumble 
upon certain things either spoken by ancients 
or written by heathen, even poets, so purely, 
so holily, so divinely, that I cannot persuade 
myself that their breast, while they wrote those 
things, was not stirred by some good power. 
And perhaps the Spirit of Christ pours Himself 
more widely than we interpret ; and many are 
in the fellov biiip of the saints who are not, ac- 
cording to our judgment, in their catalogue. . . . 
When I read certain things of this sort, I scarf 
refrain myself from saying: 'St. Socrates, pray 
for us I ' " 

There is a striking enforcement of this in an 
experience which befell John Bunyan during his 
season of spiritual darkness. "One 
day," he says,t "after I had been 
many weeks oppressed and cast down 
therewith, as I was giving up the ghost of all 
my hopes of ever attaining life, that sentence 
fell with weight upon my spirit : Look at the 
generations of old and see ; did ever any trust 
in the Lord and was confounded ? At which 

* Colloq., Conviv. Belig. 
t Grace Abounding, 62-65. 

Jolm Banyan. 


I was greatly encouraged in my soul, for thus 
at that very instant it was expounded to me • 
Begin at the beginning of Genesis, and read 
to the end of The Revelation, and see if you 
can find that there was ever any that trusted 
in the Lord and was confounded." He searched 
the Scriptures for that good word, and inquired 
of one and another where it was ; but he failed 
to discover it. " And this I wondered, that 
such a sentence should so suddenly, and with 
such comfort and strength, seize and abide upon 
my heart, and yet that none could find it (for 
I doubted not but that it was in the Holy 
Scnpture). Thus I continued above a year 
and could not find the place ; but at last, casting 
my eye upon the Apocrypha books, I found 
It m Ecclesiasticus, chap. ii. 10.* This at the 
first did somewhat daunt me, because it was not 
m those texts that we caU holy and canonical ; 

u:t^T^a vetLr "'"^ '^-'^^ -- ^^- --^"« 

"Look at the generations of old, and see- 

Or who did abide in His fear, and was forsaken ? 

For the Lord is fuU of compassion and mercy; 
ABdHe fo^eth sins, and saveth in time of affliction." 



yet as this sentence was the sum and substance 
of many of the promises, it was my duty to take 
the comfort of it. And I bless God for that 
word, for it was of good to me. That word 
doth still ofttimes shine before my face." 

And thus may we be emboldened to enter 
on our study of some unwritten sayings of 
j^^^^^^,^^^ our Blessed Lord and Saviour. They 

r« iSy. ^^^' ^^*^®®^» **»« sanction of the holy 
Evangelists, and of none, perhaps, is 
it possible for us to be assured that it is His 
very word. Yet this at least is certain— that 
the truths which they express are His, and if 
He spoke through those words to the hearts 
of believers long ago. He wiU speak hkewise 
to ours. 


"The ploughman sits still in the church and the priest 
laboxirs, and the wearied man is permitted to his refreshment, 
and others not permitted because they need it not ; and there 
is no violation of any commandment of God, even when 
there is a profanation of the day indulged upon pious and 
worthy considerations." 

Jbbbmt Tatlob, Ductor Dubitantiurn, II. ii. 61 



IN early days, as in our own, it was the 
custom of attentive students of the Holy 
Scriptures to annotate the margins murpoutton 
of their copies with interpretations, 2Sff°** 
comments, and illustrations. It was «<»py»«** 
an excellent practice, but sometimes it resulted 
in confusion of the sacred text. That was long 
prior to the invention of printing, and when 
a scribe in copying a manuscript chanced to 
omit a word or a sentence, he would insert it 
in the margin. And occasionally it happened 
that it was difficult to determine whether what 
was written on the margin was a scribe's omission 
or a reader's note; and thus it came to pass 
that a later copyist, either from lack of dis- 
crimination or from solicitude that nothing 




should be lost, would incorporate a comment 
with the sacred text. 

A good example is the gracious storv of the 
woman taken in adultery, which stands in our 
i»w»mpto copies of the Gospel according to 
St. John,* but which, on the evidence 
of the most authoritative manuscripts, is no part 
of the original text, although it is indubitably 
authentic, a precious fragment of the evangelic 
tradition. How did it find its way into the 
Evangelist's narrative ? It was noted by some 
reader on the margin of his Gospel, probably 
as an illustration of that saying of our Lord : t 
"Ye judge after the flesh ; I judge no man"; 
and thence, by a happy error, i.^ was transferred 
by a scribe into the body of the textj 

• yii. 63-viil. n. I ^, 15 

J^ several manuscripts the passage is inserted in the 
Go^ according to St. Luke after xxi. 88. What a duU 
scnbe copying mechanicaUy. was capable of i. exempted 
to 2 Cor. vii^. 4, 6. where the true readmg is S,6utyoi hu&y 

3.{a,0« ^p.c was toserted after dyfovc In some manuscripts 
a marginal note is added : iv ^oUoIc r«v kynypi^^y o^u.^ 
el^y-a. and m one minuscule this is incorporated with the 

KtU Oil KuBiis ^iXirlaafur. '^ 


It is to a fortunate confusion of this sort that 
we owe the preservation of the unwritten saying 
of our Lord which is now to enaatie 

° ^ Aa onwrlttra 

our attention. In the opening verses uyins tbu 


of his sixth chapter St. Luke describes 
two encounters which our Lord had with the 
Pharisees on the question of Sabbath-observance. 
The first arose over the action of His hungry 
disciples in plucking ears of com and rubbing 
out the grain between their hands on the 
Sabbath ; and the second over His miracle of 
healing the man with a withered hand in the 
Synagogue on another Sabbath. Between these 
two narratives a third is inserted in the Codex 
Bezae, that sixth century manuscript which is 
one of the treasures of the University of 
Cambridge, and one of the chief authorities for 
the text of the Gospels. The story runs thus : * 

" On the same day He beheld one at work on the Sabbath, 
and said to him : ' Man, if thou knowest what thou art doing, 
blessed art thou ; but if thou knowest not, thou art accursed 
and a transgressor of the Law.' " 

The story is no part of St. Luke's narrative, 

* rj ovrji flf^P9 dtaaafitvde riva ipyaZofievov rji trafifiarf 
cTtrcf airry' AvOpunrt, ti fiiy olSat rl TOtcIc, ftaKapios d' el ie fti^ 
•I^of, iwiKaTOpoTOS cat irapa/Jariic tl rov voftov. 




and it crept into the text of the Codex Beae 
■n the way wWoh has just been i„dic«ted. It 
■s a tra<ht,on whieh had lived on in the Chureh 
and some early Christian noted it on the marl' 

of h., copy of St. Luke's Gospel ;.nd by ^S 
by h.s annotated Gospel fell into the hands of 
the scnbe to whom we owe the Codex Beae. 
and m transcnbm^ from it he mistook the 
marginal note for an omission and restored it 
as he supposed, to iu rightful pW in the text ' 
Though ,t lacks the sanction of the Evangelist 
this much may be claimed for the f^gm^t!!: 
pr.b.M, *•«" >t has the ring of a genuine 
J.JJ..MJ raying of our Lord ; and the mamier 
of Its preservation strongly recom- 
mends ,t. The,* is „„eh probabiUty thlHt 
.s an authentic fragment of the evangelic tradi- 
t.on; and it .s. moreover. weU worthy of our 
attentive consideration, inasmuch as it enunciates 
an important and truly Christian principle. 

It relates an incident in the long and bitter 
controversy between our Lord and the Pharisees 
on the question of Sabbath-observance 
-the question which first provoked 
theu- hostility against Him, and ex- 
asperated them more and more untU they 





compassed His death. And the strangeness of 
this appears when the primal purpose of the 
Sabbath is called to remembrance. 
It was, in its original intention, a uwSttJT 
gracious and beneficent ordinance— ***'**^ 
not a tribute which God exacted of the children 
of men for His own honour, but a gift which 
He bestowed upon them for their profit; not 
a burden which He imposed upon them, but a 
merciful alleviation of their toil, securing to man 
and beast alike a season of physical rest, and 
affording to man an opportunity of escaping 
from the noise and dust of the worid and breath- 
ing, for his spiritual refreshment, the atmosphere 
of Eternity. « Remember the Sabbath day, to 
keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and 
do all thy work: but the seventh day is a 
Sabbath unto the Lord thy God ; in it thou 
shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor 
thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maid- 
servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that 
is within thy gates."* 

Such was the primal intention of the Sabbath ; 
but the Rabbis perverted it, and turned the 
gracious ordinance into a grievous oppression. 

* Exod. XX. 8-10. 




The ancient Law forbade the doing of any work 
on the Sabbath, and the llabbis defined and 
jujjj^ extended the precept with elaborate 
'^ ingenuity. First, they specified forty 

works save one • as falUng under the prohibition, 
and decreed that a deliberate violation should 
ihirty-nm. ^ punished by stoning to dea^I,, whUe 
J^wud an inadvertent transgression must be 
expiated by a sin offering. Nor did 
they stop there. Those thirty-nine were defined 
as pnmitive or. in Rabbinical phrase. " fathers " • 

"£3;;;r T^^ ^"^^ "^***^"'" '^^^ * t~in of 

denvative works or "descendants." 
For instance, ploughing was a primitive work 
and ,t included digging among it. derivatives' 
And diggmg comprehended much. Thus if a 
chair were drawn over the ground and made 
tracks, that was digging, and it was a violation 
of the law. Another « father " of work was the 
cariying of a burden, and it had a large family 
of "descendants." Thus, one might not on the 
Sabbath wear a superfluous garment, or an orna- 

♦ "Forty save one" was a standing number, originating 
n the merciful regulation that, when a criminal w^sen 

Z^nt Ti:'T'' ''^ °^^^' "'^-•'^ adminisron," 
tt^ty-nme. lest he should miscount and administer one to^ 
many. Of. Deut. xxv. 3 ; 2 Cor. xi. 24. 


ment which might be Uken off and carried in 
the hand ; neither might one wear false teeth 
lest they should fall out. and then he would lia 
them and carry them. It was allowable to walk 
on the Sabbath with a crutch or a wooden leg, 
but not to go on stilts, since the stilts were 
not in constant use and, when they were not 
in use, the man carried them.* Another of 
the thirty-nine " fathers " was reaping, and its 
" descendants " included not only the plucking 
of a blade or an ear of com but still remoter 
contingencies. Thus, a woman was forbidden 
to look into her mirror on the Sabbath, since 
she might espy a grey hair on her head and 
be tempted to pluck it out ; and that would 
have been reaping. 

All this is ludicrous, and it would be intoler- 
ably vexatious ; but the worst of the Rabbinical 
legislation was that it issued in a 
morally rumous system of casuistry. <»«>i«toy. 
Its prescriptions were frequently impossible in 
practice, and then resort was had to devices 
for evading the inconvenient commandment 

Palestine. They were used in mediiBTal Scotland for the 
same reason. Cf. Scott. Quentin Dunoard, Note 9. 




while keeping it according to the letter. For 
instance, a Sabbath day's journey was defined 
as a distance of two thousand cubits beyond 
the city ; but the inconvenience of the limitation 
was overcome by means of a useful fiction 
known as ei-ubhin or "connections." One who 
desired to travel farther than two thousand 
cubits, had only to deposit at the boundary 
food sufficient for two meals. This constituted 
the boundary technically his dwelling, and he 
was at liberty to make it a fresh starting-point 
and travel two thousand cubits beyond it.* 

The Sabbath law of that age was thus at once 
an offence to religion and morality and a vexa- 
JStSf *'''"' ^""^ intolerable oppression. It 

S^Sid ^^l *^^ '^'''^^ °^ ^^««^ "*»eavy burdens 
Sabbatarian- *»« grievous to be borne " which the 
Pharisees bound and laid on men's 
shoulders;! and our Lord steadfastly resisted 
It. He did not, indeed, deliberately assail it • 
for that was never His manner. He simply 
disregarded the petty and harassing restrictions 
ot the Rabbinical legislation, and observed the 
Holy Day according to the beneficent spirit of 

* Cf. The Days of HU Flesh, chap. xv. 
T St. Matt, xxiii. 4. 



its prima^ in tiiation, defining its intention 
on one < ocasion by ?hat significant epigram : 
" The SaloHLh was r lade for man, and not man 
for the Sabbath. * And His disciples followed 
His example. 

* St. Mark ii. 27. Cf . that unwritten saying of our Lord 
(Oxyrh. Pap. 1, vol. i. p. 3) : Xe yet 'IijiroOc" iav ftfi vriemiiariTt 
Tov KOfffioy, oh ft!) tvprire rrjv (iaaiXtiav rov deov' (coi iay nij 
<ra(i(iaTiariTt to erdfif^arov, ovk ^tade rov naripa ("Jesus saith : 
' Except ye fast from the world (cf. 1 John ii. 15), ye shall 
not find the Kingdom of God (cf . Matt. vi. 33) ; and except 
ye sabbatise the Sabbath, ye shall not see the Father ' " (of. 
Matt. V. 8). On our Lord's attitude to fasting cf. The Days 
of His Flesh, pp. 104, 127-30. In LXX aalSfiariiiuy to 
traPiiaToy means simply "to keep the Sabbath" (cf. Lev. 
xxiii. 32 : airo kervepat tug hiripae aa(i(inTiiirt. to. txaftflara 
itfiSiv), "giving the Sabbath its proper use, recognising its 
true sabbatical significance." The phrase is thus employed 
by St. Justin Martyr. Cf. Dial. cum. Tryph., p. 229c 
(Sylburg's edition) : "The New Law wishes you to sabbatise 
{aa^fiaTiHitiv) continually. And when ye do no work for a 
single day, ye fancy ye are pious, not considering wherefore 
it was enjoined upon you ; and if ye eat unleavened bread, 
ye say ye have fulfilled the wUl of God. It is not in these 
things that the Lord our God is well pleased ; but if any one 
among you is perjured or a thief, let him give over ; if any 
one is an adulterer, let him repent ; and he has sabbatised 
the delightsome and true Sabbath of God (fftffafifldriKE Ta 
Tpv<pepd. Kal dXtidtya adfifiaTa)." The best commentary on 
this saying is Ignat. Epiat. ad Magnea. ix. : tl oZy oi iv 
iroKaio'it npay/xaffiy &va(rTpa<j>ivree etc KaivoTtira iXirihoc ^jKOoy 
fitlKETi oafitiaTiioyree AXXa Kara KvpiaKljy ^wvrec Jewish Sab- 






'" ■" **^" 7« » dMgerous innovator, 
not merely viohting the Law Himself 
but emboldening others to cast off 
Hi™ J "straints. And so they charged 
Him w,th encouraging ungodliness. * 

And m truth there was, as our Lorf sadly 
'ecogmsed, .„ element of justice in t^r 
Sir"* !«"»««on- It is the inevitable mis- 
„. . . ^ "*""* °^ • reformer that the cause 
wh,ch he advocates is apt to be espoused ^m 
unworthy motive., and thus it is exposeTto 
misconception and even to disaster. ^ rt 
members, for example, how the English PuritI 
A«to..r. ^rned of establishing the Kingdom 
SSr- of God in the Und ; fnd, while^Z 
held the power, they strove in all 
smcenty to bamsh ungodliness by auste.e l^sl^ 

severMc. from It (1) hv h,„ TT ' ""* ""^ mu-ked their 

.h. ™™..h .„ ti'e 2it''Corr:u'':^,'r^ ^r '-" 

a new name— never " th^ a uultT ** ^^^ ^'J' K»^ing it 

that is. the^^rwhichn!*^ ^ ?"* "'^^ ^^'^ ^^y-" 
Holy Spirit of proS : ^T'. "'''"^"' '^^ ^«°' ». 

the Lord's Day" the Christ temper ' ""^"^ "^ 



tion, prohibiting not only recognised vices but 
innocent diversions, and advertising their piety 
by their dress and demeanour. The 
issue was disastrous. "To know," Smerisof 
writes Lord Macaulay,* " whether a '^*»"^ 
man was really godly wis impossible. But it 
was easy to know whether he had a plain dress, 
lank hair, no starch in his linen, no gay ftimiture 
in his house ; whether he talked through his 
nose, and showed the whites of his eyes; 
whether he named his children Assurance,' 
Tribulation, and Maher-shalal-hash-baz ; whether 
he avoided Spring Garden when in town, and 
abstained from hunting and hawking when in 
the c'> try: whether he expounded hard 
scriptu- his troop of dragoons, and talked 

in a con^inittee of ways and means about seeking 
the Lord. These were tests which could easily 
be applied. The misfortune was that they were 
tests which proved nothing. Such as they 
were, they w.;re employed by the dominant 
party. And the consequence was that a crowd 
of impostors, in every walk of life, began to 
mimic and to caricature what were then regarded 
as the outward signs of sanctity. The nation 

* Saaaya : Comic Dramatiata of the BeatorcUion. 




was not duped. The restraints of that gloomy 
time were such as would have been impatiently 
borne, rf imposed by men who were universally 
beheved to be saints. Those restraints became 
altogether msupportable when they were known 
to be kept up for the sake of hypocrites " 

It was fatal to the cause of Puritanism when 
It became the pathway to worldly profit and 
was espoused by men who cared nothing for 
Its pnnciples but only for their own temporal 
advancement. And the peril which proved fatal 
to the Reign of the Saints menaced the 
SSr'C*' ^'"^'^''™ ^^ Heaven. The contra- 
• diction of sinners was less grievous 
to our Lord and less injurious to His cause 
than their approbation ; and of this the incident 
before us is a striking example. It 
occurred on that very day when He 
was assailed by the Pharisees for 
allowmg His disciples to pluck the ears of com • 
and His defence, if it did not satisfy the 
Phansees was not lost upon the bystanders. 
Ere the day was over He encountered an evi- 
dence of this. It was the Sabbath, yet a man 
was busy at his work, probably reaping his field 
It was a piece of audacity startling and shocking 


wotUag oa 
tbe Sabbatb. 




Phi'"*^'"'"''!' ""•' ■' '' '""^'y that the 
Pha^sees ducted the Lord's attention to the 

soa^al and el^rgcd Him with the responsibility. 
At all events He accosted the offender, who was 
evidently a stranger to Him and n;t o, e o 
H.S professed followers. He neither approved 
his conduet nor condemned it. It was a question 
of motive, and according to his motive must 
the man be judged. 

Wherefore had he ventured on so startling 
an J-ovation ? It seems plain that this praisf 
at least must be ascribed to him— 
that his syn^pathies went with Jesus S'.S*™" 

^ r f .*f ""^ "'^ «> raneorously 
and he had the courage to side with Him 
^gardless of the consequences to which h" 
open violation of the law exposed him. Thi 
ZT- "I'f '»."'"«'>■ but it was insufficient fo- 
his justification. There was more involved than 
mere partisanship, and the determining quesZ 
was the man's attitude towari the prineip t o^ 

* Lorf'! TT""^ *""'^- «'<» he laid 
sense o^^^, '"« *" "^""^ »"''• ^i* a clear 

sense of the issues, gone to work on the Sabbath 




Rabbinical legislation? Then his action was 
justified. It resembled the indignant iconoclasm 
of good King Hezekiah when he took "the 
brazen serpent which Moses had made," and, 
because the Jews had turned that memorial 
of the Lord's ancient mercy into an idolatrous 
fetich, shattered it and termed it nehusihtan, 
"a piece of brass."* But it might rather be 
that he was a mere worldling, greedy of gain 
and heedless of religious requirements ; that he 
had fretted at the Sabbatarian regulations which 
interrupted his profitable toil, and grasped at 
the licence which, as it seemed to his sordid 
mind, our Lord's example afforded. And in 
this case he stood condemned. "Man," said 
Jesus, " if thou knowest what thou art doing, 
blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, 
thou art accursed and a transgressor of the 

There is a note of warning in the Lord's 
words, but there is also an accent of gracious 
appeal. He recognised that, at the 
very worst, the man was acting a 
chivalrous part toward Himself by openly 
taking His side in the controversy and setting 

■ "' * 2 Kings xviii. 4, 

A gradoiu 


the Fillers at defiance ; and He set the issues 
distinctly before him. It is as though He had 
said : « You have come thus far : will you not 
come aU the way ? You have thrown off the 
yoke of bondage : will you not take My yoke 
upon you ? You are giving Me your support : 
will you not give Me your heart too?" 



"The last day is hidden that all days may be observed. 

St. AU3U8TINE, Sernunt, xxxix. 1. 



^ I ^HE scene of St. Jolin's long and gracious 
A ministry was the famous city of Epliesus ; 
and the tradition is that toward Bpuwun 
its close at the request of his °»««°orte« 

1 . . , , ^ of St. John's 

disciples he committed to writing **«*i»» 
what he had taught them of the Lord 
Jesus, lest after his departure the sacred 
story should be forgotten. It was, however, 
as he says at the conclusion of his Gospel, 
impossible for him to writ** all; and, besides 
what he had written, much that he had men- 
tioned in the course of his teaching would live 
on in the memories of his people and would 
often be recited by them. Hence it came to 
pass that the Church at Ephesus was in after 
days the repository of a rich store of unwritten 
information about our Lord ; and it is natural 





that precious fragmenU should be found on the 
pages of writers who had to do with Ephesu! 
and were famihar with its saered lore 

Am..r,ff the earliest and most inter..sti„s of 
these w„tc„ was St. Justin, the Apologist l:, 

w»« 1 11 /."""r'™ "'y "f «>''••'«>"■ or, as it 
was called n. those days, Flavi,. Neapolis ; „nd 
he was born during the reign of TnOan.. and 

dcd at the age of fifty early in the reign o 
Marcus Aurel,us.t Though born in Palc^ti,,; 
he was a heatl,en, and, like so many of t^e 
young men of that momentous epoch when a 
new world was struggling to it^ birth and 
wistful thoughts we^ stirring in earnest souk 

whifhTt:^'*" *"' '™"' ""' *« -"'foetion ,t brmgs to the cravings of the intellect; 


He had inherited a sufficient patrimony, and 

he betook himself to Ephesus, that home of 

aS'" T^T' '"•'■'I^'aloguewithT.ypho 

tK. f -• ! ' ™"^" *' *^Phesus during 
the forties of the second century, he ..lates thf 
story of h,s quest for God. He attached him- 

* A.D. 98-117. 

t A.D. 161-180. 


self first to a Stoic philosopher, but found no 
help in that school. For the Stoics were mainly 
moralists, and taught little about/,,.,., 
God; and it was God that Justin pwi«>«»piitr, 
was in search of. So he turned to a philosopher 
of the Teripatetic school, but left him ^j, ^,^. 
in a few days when, in the mercenary t^^^o- 
spirit which was the reproacli of the sophists 
of that age, he stipulated about fees. Next he 
betook himself to a Pythagorean, and (3, ^ p^^^ 
discouragement followed disappoint- »°"»n. 
ment ; for his new teacher in<juired whether he 
had studied music, astronomy, and geometry. 
Such study, the philosopher alleged, withdrew 
the soul from the things of sense and prepared 
it for the understanding of things intellectual ; 
and, learning that the aspirant had never en- 
gaged in it, he dismissed him. Thereafter he 
sought a riatonist, and at first he ^^^ , 
was charmed with his lofty teaching. "»toni»t 
" The notion of the incorporeal captivated me, 
and the theory of Ideas winged my thought ; and 
within a short time I fancied that I had become 
wise, and stupidly hoped that I would forthwith 
attain to the vision of God." But the vision 
tarried, and he realised the unreality of Platonism. 








In despair he went one day along the sea- 
side, and there he encountered a venerable and 

JfcKSTrT ^"f^yf^"^"^' The gracious stranger 
achrifltua entered into conversation with him 

Mint. J 1. 11 "*Mi <uui, 

and showed him the insufficiency of 
Philosophy, which can do much but not every- 
thmg. and directed him to the prophetit 
scnptures, which do not, like Philosophy 
demonstrate the truth but witness to it ; and 
left him with this parting counsel : « Pray above 
all that the gates of light may be opened to 
you ; for none have vision or intelligence save 
the man to whom God and His Christ have 
given understanding." 

That was the crisis of Justin's hfe. He found 
in Chnst the satisfaction which he had sought 
An unwritten Vainly in the schools of PhilosoDhv • 
■erred by and he bccamc not merely a believer 
stjoetin. witnessing for his Lord and at last 
dymg a martyr's death, but an effective apolo- 
gist for the Faith, reasoning especially with 
earnest heathen who felt the need which had 
pressed upon himself, and showing them the 
way of peace which he had himself discovered 
And we owe to him an impressive saying 
of our Lord. It occurs in his Dialogue with 


Trypho,* and it may reasonably be assumed to 
be a lingering echo of the teaching of St. John. 
It runs thus : 

"In whatsoever employments I may surprise f you, in 
these also will I judge you." 

The saying refers to our Lord's coming again 
and the judgment which He will then pass on 
every man; and it finds an appro- 
priate setting in His discourse to the appropriate 
disciples of things to come on the eve ■"**^" 
of the last Passover.| " Watch therefore," He 
said : "for ye . .low not on what day your Lord 
cometh. But know this, that if the master of 
the house had known in what watch the thief 
was coming, he would have watched, and would 
not have suffered his house to be broken 
through. Therefore be ye also ready: for in 
an hour that ye think not the Son of Man 
cometh. And in whatsoever employments I 

* Sylburg's edition, p. 267a : ci6 Kal 6 fifxerepos Kipioc 
IijffoCc Xpiirroc tlirev' iv oh av vpas KaraXafiw, iv tovtoiq ical 
Kpivii. ^ Cf. Clem. Alex. De Div. Serv., 40 : i<ft' olc yap av evpu 
vftde, (jtTiaiv, if rewrote Kal KpivH. 

t Such is the force of icaraXa/i^dvciv. Cf. St. John viii. 3, 
4 : zii. 86 ; 1 Thess. v. 4. 

t 8t Matt zziv. 42-44. 



may s„q,rise you, in these also wiU I j„dge 

r Z- .r '"""'"""^d to understand by our 
Lords "commg again" His Second Advent- 

"ncMtttot, "'^ ""»• appearing at the end of the 
^!^ world to judge the quick and the dead 
And It IS beyond question that this 
n^erpretahon robs His warnings and exhorta- 
tions of much of their force. For the Second 
Advent IS so uncertain ; it has been so long 
delayed that it seems a remote contingent 
Ihe world has continued for nigh two thousand 
years smce our Lord took His departure, and 
■t may run its course uninterruptedly for ages 
yet to eom^ And thus we a^ deposed ^to 
kave the Second Advent out of our calculation; 

in the parable who said in his heart. "My lord 
de ayeth has coming," and began to beat his 
fcUow-servants, md ate and drank with the 
drunken; nevertheless that supreme consumma- 
tion s so problematic^ that it has ceased to 
operate as a practical incentive. 
The reason lies in this-that when we limit 

Advent, we put too narrow an interpretation 


on the phrase. It bears a threefold signification 
in the New Testament. Primarily indeed it 
denotes the Second Advent, but it jj^, 
has also a nearer reference. In that "«°«iing» 
great discourse on Mount Olivet of «»♦„ . . 

. . (1) the Second 

tilings to come the impending de- **^«it. 
struction of Jerusalem by the Romans is 
designated "the coming of the Son of Man ";* 
and in this sense every momentous ^^ ^ ^^ 
occurrence in human history is His *<>rtocrieii, 
coming to judgment, a startling mterposition 
of Him who ever liveth and reigneth, a vindi- 
cation of His cause, an exhibition of His 
sovereignty. And, furthermore. He comes again 
to every man at the hour of death, „, ., , 

,. ' (8) tne nonr 

according to that word of His in the •'«•»«»• 
Upper Room:t "If I go and prepare a place 
for you, I come again, and will receive you 
unto Myself, that where I am, there ye may 
be also." 

And thus our Lord's « coming again " is no 
remote contingency but an imminent certainty 

♦ St. Matt. xxiv. 27. On the composition of the discourse 
on things to come see The Days of Hia Fleah. Introd., pp. 
XXIX ff. and chap, xliv, 

t SL John xiv. 3. 


i\ '"! 



! li- 

fer eve.y man. It may be that the fi^l con 
summafon is still far off. and the 3 TZ 
SLi^r* . ^. y^*" ^'hich have passed 

"« ' beginmng of the long course whirl, 
the history of the p^sent age has sti to ™„ 
and none of this generation nor of mlr.; 
future generation shall ever see with moL 
eyes the Son of Man eoming in the cIo"d° of 
heaven power and great glo,y; " t ^ 
eve^, one of us He will surely teom'e ^ i„^ 
He ,s coming continually. The history of the 
world B Hi. Book of Revelation; a^dtvery 
startbng event is the lifting ud of Hi. T^ 
to shake ternhly the earthf et^ tnu»pwt 
truth and nghteousness is a vindication ot HU 
cause, an anticipation of the Last Assize. And 
m a nearer and more personal fashion He will 
one day come to you and to me. and lay ffi" 
hand upon us and caU us hence 

His "coming again" is for every man an 
-mmment prospect, the one certain!^ that the 
i^. ftiture holds. And here is the solemn 
tact : however and whenever He mav 
come, H« coming is always sudden, alwayT^ 
surprise. "In an hour that ye think not the 


Son of Man cometh. And in whatsoever em- 
ployments I may surprise you, in these also 
will I judge you." 

This is the test, and it is the only righteous 
test. It IS m his unguarded moments that a 
man's true character appears. You 
remember how on the night before ^^""^ 
the battle of Agincourt Shakespeare's King 
Henry V disguised himself and passed through 
the camp to see whether aU was well, whether 
the soldiers were at their posts and ready for 
action. It would have been no test had he 
advertised his coming; for then they would 
have been on the watch, and even a traitor 
would have acted a true part. That he might 
know what manner of men they were, he took 
them by surprise ; and in whatsoever employ- 
ments he surprised them, in these also he judged 
them. ° 

It is thus—" as a thief in the night "*~that 
our Lord will come to judgment ; and our only 
security against surprise lies in cease- 
less vigilance. This does not mean ^S^ 
that we should abandon our worldly employ- 
ments and spend our days watching the heavens 

* 1 These. V. 2, 4. 

» ;f 


i ■ 


for the sign of our Lord's appearing.* The 
truly Christian attitude is veiy different, and 
It IS excellently defined by a story which is 
told of St. Francis of Sales, that gracious and 
gentle preacher, a lover of God and of all God's 
creatures. As he sat one evening in the light 
of the setting sun, a child nestled by his side 
with his httle chess-board, and the saint played 
with him. An austere brother espied him, and 
took him Wnlytotask. « For shame, brother 
Francis, that you should engage m a foolish 
game with a foohsh chUd I What if it were 
told you that the Lord will presently appear?" 
"Brother," answered the saint, "I would finish 
^e game. It was for His glory that I 
began it." 

This is the Christian attitude. We are ready 

• Of. the demoralisation occasioned in the Church at 

o^rr^.o^jS?^ ''^^'^'^'^<^- o' - inunediate ap^Lg 
of the Lord (2 Thess. ii. 1 flf • nr e-i2^ Tr, o i .^^ "f ^^ 

srir/tir'"^- ^^-" i«/i82":i.t*of^riaS:en 

teUs a profitable anecdote : "lliere is a Bomish priest here 
^o m the reign of the lact Pope, wrote a book on th^ 

tion of all the wrath; he carried his MS. to the re^lar 
hcenser who showed it to the Pope before grantinXve 

Wnf t^ Kr k'.."^"^ ^'"^^ *'*^ «''«"«« ^^^^ be given 
him to pubhsh it in the year 1831." 


leap up in gladness at the thonirhf ■^^••- ">' 
01 Him, at the mention of His '"•**«• 
blessed name, at whatsoever brings Him f 
remembrance. It will Sl P f ^ ''''' 

be weU on that day^th .^nl "" "T"' 
loved the Lord's appe^..'" ^^T, ^^*. ^\- 
test: how would we feel? h'. T ,. '' '*^" 
appear-~if we sho^d H^ ^ """^^ '"^^^"^>^ 

Hrstandblbtwl """J ^''^' ^°^ ^h^^d 
^uuiaing beside us and survevinir ... ™*i. 

His sweet face «,d His "e^^V * 

ception?" It wonM .„^^ ..^ "'^ ""■ ?«■■- 

would it be a^Ji r ^ " '"'^"■^' '»'» 
XI. ue a gjad surprise? Whatpv**,. ^ 

wewouirti'^rwaV^^-tludT? *^"* 
bid Him weleome witiiout e™^ ""^ ""* 

Bishop Bumet saidTChtewT r'T ' 
he h«l known him for ^nW t» ^^ ." "' 
time he had never taZ!? ^^' ""^ *" *"' 

-Jo »ything ^z tTouw'"„:rr'*''"" °; 

to b. Uie last word or action of 4 hf^ T^ 
oould haMly be .^^ »«» ^,1^ ^^ ^^^e 




In truth the best preparation that we can 
make for the coming of our Lord, howsoever 
ourbm *nd whensoever He may come, is 
impantiim. ^j^at we should go on day by day 
in faithful discharge of the offices which 
His providence has appointed to us, and in 
I >ving service of one another for His deai 
sake. In the history of America it is told 
how one day, when the legislature of Con- 
necticut was in session, the sun was suddenly 
eclipsed arid a strange darkness feU. A 
whisper passed through the awe-struck House 
that the Last Day had come, and a 
member moved for adjournment. But an 
old Puritan rose and said that, if it were 
mdeed the Last Day, he would wish to be 
found by the Lord at his post, doing his 
appomted duty, and he therefore moved that 
candles be brought in and the business of the 
House proceed. 

"If I were told that I must die to-morrow, 
That the next sun 

Which sinks should bear m. past aU fear and sorrow 
Jfor any one ; 

AU tte fight fought, all the long journey through. 
What should I do? 7 wirougn. 


"I do not think that I should shrink or falter. 

But Just go on, 
Doing my work, nor change nor seek to alter 

Aught that is gone ; 
But use, and move, and love, and smile, and pray 

For one more day." 

" Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ said • 
•In whatsoever employments I may surprise 
you, m these also will I judge you.'" 






"I have learned 
To look on nature, not aa in the hour 
Of tho. Khtlc-rfs youth ; but hearing oftentlmea 
The .-'viil. uad music of humanity, 
Not harsh nor grating, though of ample power 
To chasten and subdue. And I have felt 
A presence that disturbs me with the joy 
Of elevated thoughts ; a sense sublime 
Of something far more deeply interfused. 
Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns, 
And the round ocean and the living air. 
And the blue nicy, and in the mind of man : 
A motion and a spirit, that impels 
AU thinking things, all objects of all thought, 
And rolls through all things." 




IN the Upper Room on that night in which He 
was betrayed, our Lord not only announced 
to Uie Eleven His approaching de- ^^ p„,^ 
parture, but He consoled them with «>'«»• spteit 
a great promise. He told them that, though 
He was leaving them, they would not lack 
guidance and inspiration ; for He would send 
the Holy Spirit to supply His place and be with 
them for ever * And after His Resurrection, 
ere He went home to the Father's House, He 
appeared to them at Jerusalem, adding- an 
emphatic charge. The Holy Spirit wouir; not 
come immediately : He did not come until the 
Day of Pentecost, seven weeks after the Pass- 

♦ St. John xiv. 16-18, 25, 26 ; xv. 26, 27 ; xvi. 7-14. 



""S^ u"^ J^'^. """'* ™* ^°' His coming, 
ot My Father upon you: but tarry ye in the 

H ^""^/" ^ ^'°**^«^ ^tl^ power fh,m on 
high They needed the grace of the Holy 
Spint for their ministry., and they must not 
begin It without His heavenly aid; and ere 
they could receive Him into their hearts, they 
needed a breathing-space, a season of self- 
recoUection after aU the distress and excitement 
through which they had been passing. 

They obeyed the behest, and stayed in 
Jerusalem assembling daily for prayer-the 
ga'i-' ^^^l^'^ *"^ the rest o- the behevers '° *h%«*^red capital, in all a com- 
• pany of about a hundred and twenty, 
rhey obeyed the behest in the letter, but thev 
transgressed the spirit of it, betraying thus their 
need of the promised grace. Surely they should 
have token no step, no fresh departure, until 
the promise was fiilfilled and they had the Holy 
Spmt to direct them ; but waiting was tedious 
and a proposal was made by St. Peter, always 
impulsive and impetuous, that they should forth- 
with elect a twelfth Apostle in room of the 

* St. Lufce xxiv. 48. 

* li 



traitor Judas. The proposal was approved, and 
they elected Matthias.* 

It was certainly a premature procedure, and 
it was unwisely effected. They prayed indeed 
for guidance in their choice, and j^fa,a9i^ 
therein they did well; but then they i*«>o«>««- 
had recourse to the casting of lots — a method 
which was already disdained even by heathen 
of the wiser sort.t They would hardly have 
acted thus had they waited for the promised 
aid of the Holy Spirit. There is reason in the 
judgment of a devout interpreter! that in their 
hasty decision they outran the providence of 
God. It was not His will that the vacant place 
shouH be filled so soon. In His secret counsel 
He had another than Matthias in view, and was 
reserving the otSce for that young Rabbi, Saul 
of Tarsus, whom He raised in after days to so 
unique an apostleship. The actual course of 
events was God's condemnation of that pre- 
cipitate election ; for St. Paul was in truth the 
twelfth Apostle, and Matthias sank immediately 

* Acts i. 15-26. 

t Philostr. Vit. Apollon. T^an., iii. 80 : e\^pj> rt yap 
^vy^iitpovffi n)** aipeoiv, oc irpovoel ovdiv. cat yap ay Koi r&v 
<ftav\oriptM>v ne aipeOtlri ivo rov gXiipov. 

t Stier, Words of the Apostles. 





into msignificance. His election is aU that is 
recorded of him in the New Testament; from 
that hour he is never mentioned in the sacred 

It seems indeed that the disciples erred in the 
course which they pursued ; nevertheless their 
i/evjrthei.* choice of him was a high tribute to 
SiZ!^ Matthias, and it is no condemnation 
of the man that no record of his 
subsequent career has been preserved. No less 
obscunty surrounds most of the Apostles who 
were chosen by the Lord Himself, and the truth 
IS that many a man is unknown to fame who 
yet plays well his appointed part and lays the 
world under a debt of gratitude none the less 
weighty that it is unrecognised. There are 
names unrecorded in history yet voitten in 
trods Book of Remembrance. 

And in point of fact it appears that, though 
the New Testament tells so little of him 
HtawoA Matthias did a noble work in his' 
generation. It is said * that he was 
one of the Seventy Apostles whom the Lord 
appomted in addition to the Twelve, and " sent 
two and two before His face into every city 

* Eus. ffist. EccL. L 12 ; Jerome. Script. Ecd. 


and place, whither He Himself was about to 
come."* And he wrote a book which, though 
not itself a Gospel, may have furnished materials 
to our Evangelists, and which rendered a 
precious service to the Church by commemora- 
ting the teaching of our Lord ere our Gospels 
were written. It was entitled The Traditions, 
and though it has perished, it is frequently 
mentioned and quoted in the early Christian 

It is to this work that we owe the unwritten 
saying which is now to engage our attention ; 
and it occurs in the " MisceUanies " 
of Clement of Alexandria, that Myintr in hia 
gracious scholar who flourished during 
the reign of the Emperor Severus.t The 
passage runs thus : " The beginning of know- 
ledge is wondering at things, as Plato says in 
the Thecetetus, and Matthias in the Traditions, 
exhorting : ' Wonder at the thmgs before you ' ; 
laying this down as the first step toward the 
knowledge which lies beyond. "| 

.'. ill 

• St. Luke X. i. t a.d. 193-211. 

X Strom. II. iz. 45 : ravrqc Se &PX^ ^** Oavfmirai ra irpiyfiara, 
is HXarwy iy Ocatr^r^i \iytiy icai Mardlae iv raie Xiapaloatn 
mapaivmV davfiamy ra irapoyray fiaOftoy rovrov irpAroy rqc 



Now what is the meaning of this saying: 
Wonder at the things before you " ? Clement 

Mjura yv<i««c Wor.fl^;«.oc. It might seem « though It 
we« merely a saying of Matthias that Clement is here 
quoUng but there is evidence that it is a saying of o^ 
Lord. Clement immediately continues: "In which co^ 
nection a^ In the Gospel according to the Hebrews iTb 
wntten: 'He that hath wondered shaU reign. SZ lat 
hath mgned shall rest' {i dav^&^a, /3««Xe6«r« r«l o fiaa^XeiJc 
4.a.«««r«0." Elsewhere (Stnnn. V. xiv. 96) he gives this 
quotation more fully without reference to its ^X " He 

he shaU h. amazed, and on being amazed he shaU rei^ 
and on re.gnmg he shall rest" (oh naiaera. 6 i^Cy eV fiv 

J. .7ra.«.a.«ra.). fc neither of these passages iLthere anv 
mdu^tion that the quotation is a saying of^ou^^l^^ ^^^ 
it IS found m a form closely simUar to Clement's longer 
vemon among the X6y.a 'l,.oO recently discoverS^ at 
Oxyrhynchus (Oa^rh. Pap. 654. vol. iv. p. 4) c^ent 
expressly assigns the saying Bai^a^or ra lapLa^Zl 
s^e contex^ and it foUows that it also is aly.v W 
Like Papias' Aoyiu,y Kvp.«<5v 'E|,y^«.c tha t ^v 

i^apmtni, Hfutprey 6 U\t,a-6s) : for if hi h.A / 

been rebuked by his life into not sinning." 


compares it with a saying of the Greek 
philosopher Plato, which runs as follows : " The 
mark of a philosopher is this affection 
— wondering; for there is no other oiement'Sf^ 
beginning of Philosophy than this."* **«"*^ 
And if we consider how the principle operates 
in the domain of Philosophy, we shall perceive 
its application to the loftier domain of Religion. 
The history of scientific discovery abomids 
in illustrations of the principle. Thus, the dis- 
placement of water when a body is Aioientuio 
plunged into it is a familiar phe- p'^o*pi«- 
nomenon, but its significance was never observed 
until Archimedes of Syracuse in the third cen- 
tury B.C. wondered at it. According HiBtorio 
to the old story, he noticed it one «»°ipi^ 
day as he entered his bath ; and inquiring into 

* Theeet. 155d : ftdXa yap «^t\o(r6if>ov tovto ro iraOoc, ro 
Oav/ta^cty oil yap AXXi) dpx"^ ^tXoffo^t'ac rj oiiri;, cat toiKty 6 
r^v Ipjv QavfiarroK tKyovov 0^vac oh cokwc ytvtaXoytiv. The 
reference here is to Hesiod, Theogn. 780 : vavpa It Oav/xatroc 
Ovyonjp jr<52oc <i«'a Ipic. Of. Arist. Met, I, ii. 15 : iia yap ro 
davfiaitiy ol avdpuroi cat vvv rat ro lep&rov ijp^ayro fi\o<ro(bilv. 
Wordsworth, Excursion, iv ; 

" We live by Admiration, Hope, and Love ; 
And, even as these cure well and wisely fiz'd. 
In dignity of being we ascend." 



the reason of it, he discovered the law of Specific 
Gravity. Again, the law of Gravitation has 
operated ever since the creation of matter; but 
it was never discovered until that day when, 
as he sat in his garden at Woolsthorpe, Sk 
Isaac Newton observed an apple falling from 
a tree to the ground. He "wondered at the 
thing before him," and his wonder was "the 
beginning of knowledge." And the harnessing 
of the mighty power of steam for the service 
of civilisation came of the wonderment of James 
Watt at the frimiliar phenomenon of the escaping 
steam raising the lid of the boiling kettle. It 
was because they "wondered at the things 
before them," which others passed unnoticed, 
that these men became discoverers. Their 
" wonder was the beginning of knowledge." 

The principle operates no less in the domain 
of religious knowledge; and it vindicates for 
^^^ this unwritten saying of our Lord at 

^«. least a possibility of authenticity that 
5'S?2S1l ^! frequently enunciated the truth 
which it so succinctly formulates. 
Two instances occur in His controversies with 
the Pharisees. 

There was nothing which surprised Him more 


than their blindness to the plain declarations 
of the Scriptures. They were the teachers of 
Israel, the oiBcial interpreters of her 
sacred Law, yet they missed its neuoftn* 
obvious significance, the truths which 
lay on its very surface. "Art thou ture'ipuin 
the teacher of Israel," said He to "'•"'^**""' 
Nicodemus,* "and understandest not these 
things? If I told you earthly things, and ye 
believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell 
you heavenly things ? " Hence that wondering 
remonstrance which was so often on His lips: 
" Have ye not read ? " Thus, when they assailed 
Him for allowing His disciples to pluck the 
ears of com on the Sabbath day, He retorted : 
"Have ye never read what David did, when 
he had need and was an hungred, he, and they 
that were with him ? " t " Or have ye not read 
in the Law that on the Sabbath the priests in 
the Temple profane the Sabbath, and are guilt- 
less ? If ye had known what this meaneth, I 
desire mercy and not sacrifice, ye would not 
have condemned the guiltless." | Here and in 
kindred remonstrances it is as though He had 

* St. John iii. 10, 12. f St. Mark U. 25. 

t St. Matt. zii. 6, 7. 




(a) its 



said to His blind accusers : « Wonder at the 
things before you." 

Nor was it merely the significance of particular 
deckrations of the Scriptures that they missed, 
but the supreme end for which the 
Scriptures were written. St John 
tells how, when they accused Him 
of blasphemy in making Himself equal with 
God He charged them in return with ignorance 
of the testimony which the Scriptures bore con- 
^nung Him, « Ye search the Scriptures," said 
He,* "because ye think that in them ye have 
eternal life; and these are they which testify 
of Me ; and ye will not come to Me. that ye 
may have life." The question of immortality 
was the arena of theological controversy in those 
days.t and the Pharisees were unwearied in 
searchmg the Scriptures for arguments in con- 
ftitation of their adversaries, the Sadducees, who 
maintained that "there was no resurrection, 
neither angel, nor spirit." They searched the 
Scnptures for arguments in support of their 
dogma of Eternal Life, and they never per- 
ceived the testimonies which eveiy r -re bore 

♦ St. John V. 39, 40. 

t S*. Matt. xxii. 23-33 ; Acts xxiii. ft-10. 

■ » - A' 


to Him who is the Life. They did not " wonder 
at the things before them," and thus they re- 
mained ignorant of the truth, since "wonder 
is the beginning of knowledge." 

And the principle which this unwritten saying 
expresses is the assumption of all our Lord's 
teaching, the postulate of His every n»^^ 
declaration about God and the thimzs *•" ocnatn- 
unseen and eternal. It is wntten in »"»**«» 
that ancient book which, as we have seen. He 
so loved— the Book of Ecclesiasticus :* "Thus 
look upon all the works of the Most High : two 
and two, one against another"; " All things are 
double one against another : and He hath made 
nothing imperfect." The thought here is that 
the visible world is the counterpart of the in- 
visible, and the familiar things which we behold 
and handle are adumbrations of the things 
unseen, and reveal the things unseen to seeing 
eyes and understanding hearts. 







"Two worlds are ours: 'tis only Sin 
Forbids us to descry 
The mystic heaven and earth within, 
Plain as the sea and 8ky."t 

* xxxiii. 15 : xlii. 24. 

t Here perhaps is the key to the meaning of that obscure 
VtifwrUtea Sayings. Q 





M I 

Here is the principle which underlies our 
Lords parabolic teaching. He pointed His 
nu priaoi9i« disciples to the familiar things of 
i^H^^'' common use and daily experience—- 
**»*^' their nets and their fish, the sower 
and his seed, the shepherd and his sheep, the 
lamp, the birds, the flowers, and bade them 
recognise in each a symbol of the Eternal 

"The Lake, 
The lonely peaks, the valleys, lily-lit. 
Were synagogues. The simplest sights we met — 
The Sower flinging seed on loam and rock ; 
The darnel in the wheat; the mustard-tree 
That hath its seed so little, and its boughs 
Wide-spreading ; and the wandering sheep ; and nets 
Shot in the wimpled waters, — drawing forth 
Qreat fish and small : — these, and a hundred such, 
Seen by us daily, never seen aright. 
Were pictures for Him from the page of life, 
Teaching by parable." 

saying {Oxyrh. Pap. 1, vol. i. p. 3) : \iyu 'lifoovQ- l{i,)rtiv iv 
ftiaip Tov KdtTftov, cai iv aapKi ufdqy ahroit, Kai tlpoy vayrat 
/itdvoyrac «coi oi/Siya tlpov itiZ-wira iv ahro'tc, Kal irovt'i ij ^o/y^ 
fiov im role v'lo'ie riv avdpiiiruv, Sri rvipXol tlviy rjf Kapci^ 
a{)Tu{y) . . . ("Jesus saith : 'I stood in the midst of the 
world, and in the flesh wos I seen of them, and I found 
all drunken, and I found none athirst (cf. St. Matt. v. 6) 
among them, and My soul grieveth over the sons of men, 
becatise they are blind in their heart . . .'"). The saying 
is a lament over the spiritual blindness of men, their failure 
to "wonder at the things before them," Cf. St. John i. 10. 


"All things are double one against another," 
and each visible thing has its invisible counter- 
part. " Wonder," said our Lord, " at the things 
before you. Recognise the spiritual realities 
which lie behind them." And so St. Paul 
says:* "Look not at the things which are seen, 
but at the things wiiich are not seen : for the 
things which are seen are temporal; but the 
things which are not seen are eternal." 

And the principle appears not only in His 
parables but in all His teaching about the 
Unseen and Eternal. When His dis- of»uHu 
ciples inquired after Gk)d, He pointed JJ^J^, 
them to human fatherhood, and bade ""•«»• 
them recognise there an adumbration of the 
Heavenly Fatherhood, " a visible image of the 
invisible God." " If ye, being evil, know how 
to give good gifts unto your cliildren, how much 
more shall your Father which is in Heaven give 
good things to them that ask Him?"t And 
when they inquired after Heaven, He pointed 

* 2 Cor. iv. 18. Of. Ignat. Epiat. ad Ram. lii. : ohSiv 
itiaiyofttyov Ka\6f. 6 yap Qtot fifMuv 'lijaovs Xptffrof, iv Tlarpi 
&v, fiaXXoy (palvirai ("Nothing visible is real. For our God, 
Jesus Christ, being in the Father, is the more < arly 
visible ")■ 

t St. Matt. vii. 11. 



them to home with its consecrating affections 
and loyalties, and told them that Heaven was 
"the Father's House." 

It was thus that our Lord taught, thus that 
He revealed the Eternal •• Wonder," He said, 
" at the things before you. 

• Earth's onunmed with heaven 
And every common biuh afire with God ; 
But only he who aee*. takes off his shoee.' 

Wonder at .the things before you; for wonder 
is the beginning of knowledge." 


" What have I to do with the comforts of this life ? The 
world and I— what connection is there between us? Verily, 
the world is no otherwise than as a tree unto me : when the 
traveUer hath rested under its shade, he passeth on." 


n II 



IN the year 1849 the Scottish missionary, 
Dr. Alexander Duff, in the course of a 
journey up the river Ganges, visited 
the town of Futehpur-Sikri, about Baying in 
twenty-four miles to the west of Agra, of VSSSur- 
It is a ruinous place, but it retains one ""* 
imposing edifice— the Mohammedan mosque, 
which is one of the largest in the world. Its 
principal gateway is a magnificent structure, a 
hundred and twenty feet both in height and in 
breadth; and inside the gateway, on the right 
as one enters, Dr. DufF" observed an Arabic 
inscription in large characters. To his surprise 
and delight it proved to be a saying of our Lord, 
which, rendered into English, runs thus : 

"Jesus, on whom be peace, has said: "Hie world is 
merely a bridge : ye are to pass over it, and not to build 
your dwellings upon it.'"* 

♦ Dp. Qeorge Smith's Ufe of Dr. Duff, vol. ii. p. 164. 







»3a -s 


The very unhkelihood of its situation comti. 
t"tes . presumption in favour of the authenticity 

S-gr*" , "'! ^^"«- certifying it as no mere 
g«.«» legend of Christian faith. And on 

«,™ • • '""':''*"*'°n 't fP^ by no means 
surpnsmg ^d mdeed quite natural that a saying 
of our Lord should be found there. For tradf 
tion h«, rt that, when the Apostles dispell 
on tten- several missions in obedience to their 

found t °**«"^'"* Thomas «,d Bartholomew 
found theu way to India and preached the 
Gospel there.t It was inevitable that their 
teachmg should be remembered snd transmitted 
by theu- converts ; and this saying may well be 
. fragment of it Nor is it IZ J^^^, 
^J^ymg of our Lord should have been quoted 
with approbation by Moh«nmedans ; for they 
«=knowIedged Him as a true prophet, the 

* St. Matt, xxviii. 19. 

+ For authorities see The Tin^ ^* tx- rr. , 
Of. Daniel. ITie.. ^^ Jll"^,^^" ^'^^ P" »««. - *• 

"Joannes ut est vocatus 
Ab Epheso est translatus 

Ad Christi convivia : 
Mauri trucidant MattluBum, 
Et Indi BartholonuBum, 
Bt Philippum ScyiHua. 

ITioinam Indi. Judam Peraie 
Sunonemque, sic diverse 

Cceli coelos penetrant : 
Sic ascendunt cceli coelos, 
Ubi Ohristo fundunt melos, 

Nobis vitam impetrant." 


greatest of the prophets ere the advent of 
Mohammed, and no fewer than three chapters 
of the Koran deal with Him and His work 
and teaching.* Moreover, Futehpur-Sikri was 
founded by Akbar, that famous emperor of 
Hmdustan who astonished tlie sixteenth century 
by the catholicity of his faith, far excelling the 
Roman emperor Alexander Severus,t who placed 
m his domestic chapel images of the benefactors 
of humanity— Abraham and Christ side by side 
with Orpheus and Apollonius of Tyana. Moslem 
as he was, Akbar recognised the imperfections 
of his own religion and the excellencies of 
others. He summoned a Portuguese missionary, 
Padre Rodolpho of Goa, to expound Christianity 
to him, and he sought, though with slight and 
only temporary success, to establish in his empire 
an eclectic faith which should unite all -Pagans 
Moslems, and Christians. 

" I cul! from every faith and race the best 
And bravest soul for counsellor and fi iond. 
I loathe the very name of infidel. 
I stagger at the Kor4n and the sword. 

f r„^"'","i' 'y^ Famiirof Amran" (Amran being the 

Crad.t.on) ; Sur. v., "The Table " ; Sur. xix., " Mary " 
t A.D. 222-35. '' 



I shudder at the Chriiiti«n and the stake ; 
Yet 'Alia.' myB their sacred book, 'is L^ve.* 
And when the Goan Padre quoting Him, 
Issa Ben Mariam, his own prophet, cried. 
Love one another, little ones * and ' bless ' 
Whom? even 'your persecutors'! there .nethonght 
The cloud was rifted by a purer gleam 
Than glances from the sun of our IslAm." ♦ 

What more likely than that Akbar should adorn 
the gateway of his mosque with a saying of 
our Lord, just as Alexander Severus inscribed 
the Golden Rulet over the gateway of his 
palace ? 

There is thus no external evidence against the 
authenticity of this saying, but rather a strong 
AniatMma prcsumption in its favour. When, 
'^*^- however, the saying itself is scrutinised' 
a difficulty emerges. Our Lord is represented 
as comparing the world to a bridge, and it is 
a curious fact that the word "bridge" never 
occurs in the New Testament nor indeed in all 
the Scnptures. And the reason is that there 
were no bridges in the Holy Land. They were 
hardly needed. There were indeed numerous 
brooks m the country, but it was only during 

♦ Tennyson, "Akbar's Dream." 
+ St. Luke vi. 31. 


the rainy season that there was water in them ; 
aU the rest of the year their beds were 
dry.* The only river was the Jordan, the 
eastern boundary of Palestine, and it had no 
bridges; i* was crossed by two fords— the 
southern named Bethabara or Bethany and the 
northern at Bethshean.t A bridge was an 
unfamiliar thing in Palestine, known to the 
inhabitants only by hearsay; and it appears 
unlikely that it should have been employed by 
our Lord in His teaching by way of illustration. 
It seems as though this were fatal to the 
authenticity of the saying; but there is a possi- 
bility which appeals to the imamnation . 

„,,j J* "An attractive 

and disposes one to welcome the P««iwuty 
saying as a precious addition to the evangelic 
narrative, an unexpected side-light illuminating 
an important episode in our Lord's ministry 
which the Evangelists have left in obscurity. 

During the last year of His ministry our Lord 
sought more and more to withdraw Himself 
from the clamorous multitude and devote Him- 

♦ Cf. Psalm cxxvi. 4, where the return of the exiles to 
their desolate land is likened to the Ailing of "the water- 
courses in the parched Negeb with rushing torrents by the 
autumn rains " (Cheyne). 

t See 77i« Daya of Hia Fleah, pp. 25, 72. 




'■IIS' , 



self to the task of instructing the Twelve in 
preparation for the fast approaching day when 
oju^rt'. He would be taken from them and 

SSiSS,. ^Jj^y ™"'* ^*^ o" His work without 
the guidance and inspiration of His 
visible presence. He made several attempts to 
escape from the multitude and find a secluded 
retreat-now among the uplands of Galilee and 
agam on the farther side of the Lake- but 
whithersoever He went, the multitude pu'rsued 
Hrni, eager to hear His teaching and, still more 
to witness His miracles. 

There was no seclusion for Him within the 
borders of Palestine, and so He resolved to pass 

?.2niou. J'T^ *^T/ ^^rt^-^^^tward lay 
the land of Phoenicia with its splendid 
cibes of Tyre and Sidon, famed for the^ ships 
and sailors and the wealth which a world-wide 
commerce brought into their ports. He betook 
Himself to the territory adjacent to those cities 
hoping for seclusion there. But His fame had 
gone before Him,* and the Syrophoenician 
woman sought Him out with her story of her 
afflicted daughter. His healing of that poor 
sufferer was quickly noised abroad and brought 

• Of. St Matt. iy. 24 ; St Mark iii. 7, 8. 




an eager multitude about Him. His hope oi 
solitude was thus frustrated, and He must seek 
It elsewhere. But a door of opportunity had 
been opened to Him, and He tarried a while 
m PhcBnicia, preaching the Gospel to those 
heathen folk. 

It was a momentous episode in His ministry- ; 
for that was the only occasion when He taught 
outside the Holy Land, His solitary . 
Visit to the heathen world which, no •v^'ode. 
less than Israel, He had come to redeem. Yet, 
strangely enough, the Evangelists have preserved 
no record of it. The reason of their silence is 
probably that His kindness to the Gentiles 
was uninteUigible and offensive to their Jewish 
sentiment: they harboured that exclusive spirit 
which was so strenuously combated by St. Paul 
in after days. At aU events. St. Mark alone 
mentions the episode, and aU that even he gives 
is a meagre itinerary of that memorable journey ; 
"He went forth again from the borders of 
Tyre, and came through Sidon unto the Sea 
of Galilee through the midst of the borders of 
DecapoUs. '* 

It appears then that our Lord visited those 

♦ St. Mark vii. 31, R. V. Contrast St. Matt. xv. 29. 

.11 .11 




great cities of Tyre and Sidon. and preached 
to their people ; and there is an incidental evi- 
■boomm of dence that His ministry amonir them 
inTyi. was attended with no small success. 
•aniidoB. Toward the close, ere setting out on 
His last journey to Jerusalem, He reviewed 
His ministry in Galilee, where His grace had 
been so abundantly manifested, and contrasted 
the obduracy which He had encountered there 
with the welcome which the Phoenicians had 
accorded to His word. "Then began He to 
upbraid the cities wherein most of His mighty 
works were done, because* they repented not. 
Woe unto thee, ChorazinI woe unto thee, 
Bethsaidal for if the mighty works had been 
done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in 
you, they would have repented long ago in 
sackcloth and ashes. Howbeit I say unto you, 
it shall be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon 
in the Day of Judgment, than for you. ' * 

Now the fact which concerns us here is that, 
according to the testimony of the Evangelists,' 

n* nwcniii. our Lord, in company with the Twelve, 
o«o.ofiy«. ^gitg^ rpyj^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^j^^ 

there but obtained a ready hearing. Tyre was 

♦ St. Matt. xi. 20-22. 


a magnificent city~«the crowning city." the 
prophet Isaiah styles her,* " whose merchants are 
pnnces, whose traffickers are the honourable of 
the earth." « O thou." says the prophet Ezekiel.t 
'• that dwellest at the entry of the sea, which 
art the merchant of the peoples unto many isles 
thus saith the Lord God : Thou. O Tyre, hast 
said. I am perfect in beauty. Thy bordera are 
m the heart of the seas, thy builders have per- 
I'ccted thy beauty." When the prophet says 
that the borders of Tyre were "in the heart 
of the seas," he alludes to the peculiar situation 
of the famous city. She was built 
on an island about three-quarters of "*•"•*•• 
a mUe off the coast, and in our Lord's day she 
was connected with the mainland by a celebrated 
mole, constructed by Alexander the Great 
dunng his besicgement of the city.J 

* "'"• 8- + xxvii. 3 ff. 

I Strab. Geograph. 756-57: Tipor S' i„iy sx„ ^^,i,;, „ 
<n,y.rr^e.n ^apa^\r,^i^, a...p }, -^,„5„,. „,-„^^ Se\i>uar. 
JK rHy lirupoy I .ar..«ia« noX.op.Cy -AXita.ipo, ci.o 

.«Xov,.. ...„„0„ U ^a.. .„Xv^e>vc rac o<V/ac, Le .al 

/iupo. rov 6p^r,y a^arlaa. r^. .6X... PHn. Hist Naiur. v. 17 : 

divisa. nunc vero Alexandri oppugnantU operibu. conZens " 





Is there not here a probable and strikingly 
appropriate setting for this saying of our Lord : 
"The world is merely a bridge: ye 
are to pass over it, and not to build 
your dweUings upon it " ? It was His 
manner always to employ the surroundings of 
His hearers for the illustration and enforcement 
of His teaching, finding in every familiar object 
a heavenly parable; and He would follow His 
accustomed method when He preached to the 
men of Tyie. She was a great, proud, wealthy 
city ; and the hearts of her people rejoiced in 
the abimdance of then: gold and silver, their 
jewels and their purple and fine linen, and 
thought of nothing beyond trading and feasting. 
Surely, when they thronged about Him in 
their marketplace, our Lord would seek to 
awaken within them a sense of higher and 
more urgent concerns. He would discourse to 
them of the transitoriness of the world, the 
brevity of time, and the swift approach of the 
inevitable end. Our English poet, Abraham 
Cowley, speaks, in an impressive metaphor, 
of life as a 

'* Vain, weak-built IsthmuB, which doth proudly rise 
Up betwixt two Eternities"— 


the forgotten Eternity whence we have come. 
*nd the undiscovered Eternity whither we are 
hastening. And this is the very figure which 
our Lord here employs. He would point His 
hearers to that wonderful mole spanning the 
channel between their city and the mainland 
ever thronged by brisk passengers-caravans 
laden with costly merchandise, traveUers eager 
to be home, aU thinking of their destination and 
pressmg thither. « There," He would say, « is 
a parable of life. The world is merely a bridge • 
ye are to pass over it, and not to build your 
dwellmgs upon it" 

And such is indeed the estimate which He 
would have us entertain. The world is good 
and beautiful, but it is not our home 
Our rest is not here; it is at the end IS,22S" 
of the road in the city of God, and ***''^ 
we must hold steadfastly on our journey thither, 
Wessmg God for aU the pleasant things which 
His goodness has strewn along our path, but 
never settang our hearts upon them or deeming 
them sufficient for the satisfaction of our im- 
mortal souk, which, because He made them 
tor Himself, are resUess until they find rest 
in rlim. 

VmmttmaayiitgB. f 



■ <J 

■ 2.8 

■ 2.5 















^K 1653 EosI Men Street 

S^S Rochester. Ne» York 14609 USA 

'■iSg (716) 482 -0300 - Phone 

aaS (716) 288 - 5939 - Fox 


And this is the test of our conduct of life 
and the use which we are making of it : What 
The tart is the world to us — an end or a path- 
"'"'•• way ? Where does our treasure lie- 

here or beyond? As the years pass, are the 
world and its poor prizes bulking ever less and 
less in our esteem, and the Lord Jesus Christ 
growing ever more wonderful in our eyes and 
His love more precious to our hearts ? 



** Oh I well it is for ever. 

Oh I well for evermore, 
My nesfc hung in no forest 

Of all this death-doomed shore : 
Yea, let the vain world vanish, 

As from the ship the strand, 
While glory, glory dwelleth 

In Immanuel's land." 

"Tliis world is merely a bridge: ye are to 
pass over it, and not to build your dweUings 
upon it" 

t V 





'No fable old. nor mythic lore, 
Nor dream of baids and seers. 

No dead fact stranded on the shore 
Of the oblivious years; 

•But warm, sweet, tender, even yet 

A present help is he ; 
And faith has stiU its Ouvet, 

And love *ts Galilee. 

The healing of his seamless dress 

Is by our beds of pain ; 
We touch him in life's tbronc and press. 

And we are whole again." 



A HUNDRED and sixty miles to the south 
of Cairo lie the remains of an ancient 
city which, after long oblivion, 
has in recent years been wonder- d^ST** 
fully brought to remembrance. The °^'^'*"- 
ancient Egyptians were animal-worshippers, and 
the geographer Strabo names the principal 
objects of their adoration: "of beasts three— 
the ox, the dog, the cat; of winged things 
two— the hawk and the ibis; of aquatic two 
—the crocodile and the oxyrhynchus." * The 

^ * Geograph. 812: iy Si r^ vtpai<f 'O^ipvyxoc irdXic ral vo/tit 
Ofiuvvfiof Tifiwffi Se Toy o^vpvyxoy, Kai iartv avroTc Upov olvpvy- 
XOV ical TOi Kal ruy ttXXwv Alyuvriuy xotv^ rtfiwvrwy o^bpvyxov. 
nva fiiy yap rHy (uuy ivavree miyp rifxHtriy Alyinrrioi, KaOaittp 
r&y TfCuv fiiy rpla, (3ovv, xvya, aiXovpoy- ruy Si mriyuy Sio, 
UpoKa Kol i/JtV rwK i'eyiSpuy Svo, Xtviii^ror IxOiy Ktu 6i.vpvyyoy. 



Oxijrhijnchus, or " sharpsnout," was the pike 
and that old city was the seat of its cult' 
It had its temple and its priesthood, and it 
was called Oxyrhynchus or Piketown. 

Once a prosperous city and an outpost of 
Alexandrian Christianity in the early centuries,* 
itsexcavatw! Oxyrhynchus is now a tumble of 
sand-covered rums; but ever since 
Egypt came under British dominion the learned 
and enterprising Society of the Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund has been engaged in investigating 
that land of ancient mystery, and Oxyrhynchus 
has proved a rich and precious quarry. In the 
process of excavation the explorers happened 
upon a spot which, however unprepossessing, 
is a veritable treasure-house. It is the rubbish- 
depot of the buried city; and it has yielded 
a multitude of papyrus-leaves t-orginally mere 
waste-paper, the sweepings of houses, shops, 

nir..'nfTT'°'l°^ '^ '^"^°«' "'^^ *^« Great Oasis, as a 
thither (Theodoret, Eccl. Hist. iv. 14). 

t A writing material made of the pith of the papyrus 
plant (x«^,oc, whence "paper"), frequently ^entioneHn 
lTT\,PJ- f "^ ""'• "' '^- «^^- '• Moses' "ark of 

S; f' T^7 '' "" •^^'^««°g ^^'^''"nt in Deissmann's 
Light from the Ancient East. pp. 20 ff. 


and offices, mostly torn and defaced but not 
a few, thanks to the rainless climate and ihe 
sheltering sand-drift, well preserved and easily 
decipherable by the expert. Of course many, 
perhaps most, of them are valueless ; but the 
collection has been sifted, and the residuum is 
a precious assortment of upwards of a thousand 
documents, constituting a unique and fascinating 
library. Their perusal is like a voyage of dis- 
covery. It is a constant succession of delightful 
surprises. You turn the pages, and what meets 
your eye in varied and almost bewildering 
profusion? Private letters and memoranda, 
invitations fo diimers and weddings, wills, 
marriage contracts, deeds of divorce, doctors' 
bills, tradesmen's accounts and receipts, leases, 
land-charters, property transfers, law-court 
speeches, police warrants, petitions, census 
papers, schoolboys' exercises, pages of ancient 
and, in some cases, lost books, and— most 
attractive of &11— two sets of " Sayings of Jesus " 
and a page of a lost Gospel, all three datirig 
apparently from the second century. 

It is one of those Sayings of Jesus which 
is now to engage our attention.* Unfortunately 

♦ Oocyrh. Pap., vol. i. p. 3. Cf. Harnack in Expoaitor, 
November and December, 1897. 


the papyrus is somewhat mutaated, and the 
proper reading of the beginning of the text 
Aiajto^of is conjectural. The remainder, how- 
ever, is mtact, and with a few touches 
of restoration which seem most reasonable, the 
whole saying runs as follows :* 

withcTG^*''* '' ''^''^-^- 'h«y ^-y be. they are not 

cT^«^' f ^^^ '*°°"' "^ '^«~ thou .halt find Me ; 
cleave the wood, and I am there.'" 

Sde^ rv.'''''''" ''''''^"*' *" °^^™*°*?' '^'^^ those punctuated 
^derneath are mutilated. The length of the Ls de^ 

S^l Joh ;s°' '''''" '°^ ^^'^^ '*""°*- -'X.' (cf. Luke 

no 'suLnlv ?>.'' . " ''''''™*''" "" llame,^}.'s oIk, which does 
whei the ^l T: "'v *° ^"'^'^^ ''°«* Hunt's (JS oi.), 
htUtl" ^ ?^ ?" ^ ^^""y satisfactory, ^o 
?a"ivr rS;°^" (« --gardless of God." "Ipious'' 
^active) In this sense the heathen and the Christians 

forltn "%f"t't '^'•"- ^'^ "^"^-t God." "Go^ 
forsaken. Cf. Soph. O. T. 663. Eph. ii. 12 (the onlv 
instance in Biblical Greek): iXriSa „) e>.„, .« li;. ^ 
• WM^' latter is the meaning here. It ^... rov Ha p 
r ; ^,^^":.- ^«>- ^- the idea of aO.o. and the woxJ^X 
cf. Jonn v.„. 29; xvi. 32; Rom. xi. 3. Hamack's (oi)! 



What this means will appear if it be con- 
nected with that saying of our Lord which 
St. ^latthew has recorded :* " I sav 

J Ril prtMBM 

unto you, that if two of you shall *»**• 
agree on earth as touching anything of—iau. 
that they shaU ask, it shaU be done for them 
of My Father which is in Heaven. For where 
two or three are gathered together in My name, 
there am I in the midst of them." Here our 
Lord is speaking of the Communion of the 
Saints and His peculiar presence there. 

And this is an important truth; yet, like 
every other truth, it is liable to misconstruction. 
The danger is that in recognising the sanctity 

is preferable to Grenfell and Hunt's (\i)yo,, but his C^,p 
for {8)^oy is alien from the vestige and introduces a super- 
nuous letter. 

♦ xviii. 19, 20. Prom Ephraem Syrus' Evang. Concord. 
£^os. (xiv.) it appears that our saying actually stood in 
this connection m the Diateasanm of Tatian. the disciple of 
St. Justin Martyr : " As Clirist provided for the needs of Hia 
flock m all their wants, so He consoled those who live a 
solitary life with the words : 'Where one is, there too am 
1 KUbt unus eat, ibi et ego sum), that none of those who 
are solitary may be sad, because He Himself is our joy, and 

Snf rf K " ""''^ ""• ^° *°° ' * ^*^«^ t^° '^^«- th-re too 
mil I be, because His mercy and grace overshadow us. And 
when we are three, then we combine to form a Church 
which is the perfect body of Christ and His express image ' 




of the Church ' « efficacy of her ordinances 

we are apt to r ard the world as a secular 
Only OM lid* domain and seppiate religion from 
ofUMtrutb. common Ufe. This misconception has 
found historic expression in the institution of 
Monasticism, and its numbuig influence is widely 
pervasive. It is the cause not only of the too 
frequent divorce of religion and moraUty but 
of the discouragement which afflicts so many 
devout sou!s, forasmuch as their lot is cast in 
the thick of the world's employments ai 4 dis- 
tractions, and they have so Uttle space for 
spiritual exercises. 

This saying of our Lord, if it be indeed His, 
is a corrective of that disposition, a continuation 
and supplement of His teachJng on 
the Communion of Saints. He sets 
both sides of th truth before us. First He 
tells us that He is peculiarly present in the 
assembly of His people; and then, lest we 
should suppose that the consecration of th^ 
Church implies .'he deseciation of the world, 
He assures us that He is present not only 
where two or three are gtithered together in 
His name, but where there is one alone ; not 
only in the exercises of prayer and praise but 




in the employments of the qujxrryman and the 
Hoodman. "I say unto you, that if two of 
you shall agree on earth as teaching anything 
that they shall ask, it shall be done for them 
of My Father which is in Heaven. For where 
two or thrtje are gathered together in My name, 
there am I in the midst of theni. ^Vnd where- 
soever they may be, they are not without God ; 
and where there is one alone, even thus I am 
with him. Raise the stone, and tliere thou shalt 
find Me; cleave the wood, and I am there." 

It is no slight attestation of the genuineness 
of this saying that the truth which it expresses 
is one which our Lord had frequent xnemeaof 
occasion to enforce during Hi. earthly ^^S?,'"" 
ministry. Thus, it is written of the »«»"'»^- 
Gadarene demoniac that, when Jesus was em- 
barking to return over the Lake to Capeniaum, 
he approached and " besought Him that he 
might be with Him." He would fain have 
attached himself to the company of the dis- 
ciples and attended His bcTiefactor, sharing 
His homeless lot and witnessing to His grace 
and mercy. It was the impulse of a generoua 
heart, but the Lord had another purpose con- 
cerning the man. **Go to thy house," He 



enjoined, "unto thy friends, and tell them how 
great things the Lord hath done for thee, and 
how He had mercy on thee."* That was the 
service which he must render, that was his 
high calling— to return to his old place and 
resume his old occupation, whatever it may 
have been, and glorify his Saviour by walking 
lovingly and faithfully along the common path 
and making his daily toil a sacred ministry. 
The Lord had need of the Twelve Apostles, 
who at His command forsook all and followed 
Him whithersoever He went, that they might 
aid Him in publishing the glad tidings of the 
Kingdom of Heaven ; but no less had He need 
of the multitude of nameless folk who had 
yielded their hearts to His blessed dominion 
and who abode by their boats and nets, their 
fields and their cattle and their homes, and 
t.orified Hun in the eyes of men by living 
and workmg in the peace and gladness of His 

There is, moreover, an accent of grace in 
this unwritten saying which befits the lips of 
our Blessed Lord. Recall that neglected passage 
in the Book of Ecclesiastes t where it is 

• St. Mark ▼. 18-20. 

t X.9. 



written: "Whoso heweth out stones \al\ bf. 
hurt therewith; and he that deavetn wood 
is endangered thereby." This is a 
p; Jverb. and there is one like it in JSS^ 
Herbert's Jacula Pnidcntum : " Who ■''^* 
remove stones, bruise th^: lingers.' Go to 
war, and look for wc ;nd ; hew stones or 
cleave wood, and look ior hurts. And so, 
when our Lord would assure us of His con- 
tinual presence with us and care for us, what 
does He say? It is easy for us to realise His 
nearness and His grace when we gather in the 
House of Prayer; but He is with us where- 
soever we may be. He is with us in our 
loneliness; He is with us when our lot is 
hard. And He points this consoling assurance 
by quoting hose proverbially dangerous employ- 
ments— tb quarryman's and the woodman's. 
I' Where two or three are gathered together 
in My name, there am I in the midst of 
them. And wheresoever they may be, they 
are not without God; and where there is 
one alone, even thus I am with him. Raise 
the stone, and there thou shalt find Me; 
cleave the wood, and I am there."* 

* Similar, though converse. i« another unwritten saymg 



■! i 



It is told in that apocryphal story of our 
Lord's childhood, the Gospel of Thomas,* that 
Apwauaiia ^^^ ^^y* ^^^^ » Jouug man was 
S'oST''' ^^«»v"^ wood, his axe slipped and 
clove through his foot A crowd 
gathered round him, and presently the Holy 
Child pushed His way through and, taking 
hold of the lad, healed his wound. "Arise 
now," He said, "cleave the wood, and re- 
member Me."t 

And this is the message of the saying. It 
is a gracious word for aU whose lot is hard 
and painful, and who never know, when they 
wake and go forth to their day's toil, what 

of our Lord : " He that is near Me is near the fire ; and he 
that 18 far from Me is far from the Kingdom." GriR In 
Jerem. Horn. xx. 3: "Ait autem ipsi Salvator : 'Qui juxta 
ire est. juxta ignem est; qui longe est a me, longe est a 
regno. Ut enim qui juxta me est, juxta salutem est, ita 
et juxta ignem est." Didymus on Psa. Ixxxviii. 8 : 5.0 ^,«,. 6 
S«r„p- o eyyic ;«,« iyyij rov rvprif, 6 U fiuKpay A,r' iaov 

rt" - t '^'. ^«'*^"«'- ^ b«»«tiful saying is attributed 
to St. Peter m Greg. Naz. Bpiat. 20: "A sick soul is 
near God" {Kifiyov^a yap ./.vx") hrk itrri Qeov, ,f>r,^l nor, 
eavjiominaTa \cy«v 6 HeVpoc). Cf. Ignat. Ad. Smyrn. iv • 
o cyyuc M«X«^P«C, hyvi Qtov' ,xcra?« fl,p/«„, ^„aii, G.ov. ' 
See The Historic Jesus, chap. ii. 
f Evang. Tfuym. x. : tlirt Si rf ytavitrK^- ^yii„a viy, ,w^e 
TO. kvKa cat fiyifftovtvi itov. 



may befall them ere the day is done. "Face 

your duty," says our Lord, "with a quiet 

heart. Remember Me: I am with 

you. Raise the stone, and there thou ^S5 

Shalt find Me ; cleave the wood, and ^TZSt 

I am there. Are not two sparrows ***"* 

sold for a farthing? and not one of them 

shall fall on the ground without your Father. 

Wherever you may be, you are not without 

God, and the very hairs of your hend are all 


It lends significance and force to the saying 
that for eighteen years of His brief earthly 
life our Lord worked as a carpenter gnitabieon 
at Nazareth, " cleaving wood " for ^^ "p" °' 

TT- J •! 1 1 „,. the Carpenter 

ills daily bread. Three years of o'»"*r«tii. 
teaching and healing, and eighteen of hard 
and lowly toil; yet all the while He was 
"not without God"; He was the Saviour 
of the world, accomplishing the work which 
had been given Him to do, and offering 
that Sacrifice which lay in the surrender of 
His wiU to the Will of God and which 
reached its consummation when He prayed 
in Gethsemane: «0 My Father, if it be 
possible, let this cup pass away from Me: 




nevertheless not as I wiU, but as Thou wilt " 

Tu ^,^,^r'"^' * ^^^8 victim, on the 
Alt^ of the Cross. As Dr. Walter C. Smith, 
the Scottish poet-preacher, has expressed it : 

"Let the Captain of the Host 
His deeds of prowess boast, 
And Priest and Prophet claim that they 
Should be esteemed the most : 
But He took the burden great 
Of the worker's toU and sweat, 
And the carpenter of Nazareth 
Did labour consecrate. 

"Very dear the Cross of shame 
Where He took the sinner's blame. 
And the tomb wherein the Saviour lay. 
UntU the third day came ; 
Yet He bore the self-same load, 
^ He went the same high road. 
When the carpenter of Nazareth 
Made common things for God."* 

And this is the consecration of life-when 
we recognise each common task as God's 
appomtment, the work which He has given 

♦ Of. Just. Mart. Dial, cum Tryph. p. 316c. (Sylbur^'s 




us to do, and accept it loyally and lovingly, 
after the example of Him who was "obedient 
even unto death"* and made His life from 
Bethlehem to Calvary one ceaseless Amen to 
the Father's Will 

* Phil. ii. 8. 



Unmitttn Sayingi. 





.nnf . . ^ ^^ '^°" ^'^^ '«*™«^' '°^«5 therewith be 
content; and paw through the remainder of thy life as 
havmg entrusted aU thy concerns to the gods with tJy who" 
^ul.a.d nuking thyself neither a ty^nt nor a sUe te 

any man. 

Marcus Aureuus. 




THE ancient civilisation was indeed very 
highly developed, and in certain directions 
it had attained to an even fuller per- 
fection than our own; nevertheless ancient 
it had serious defects, and not the **^""*'™ 
least was the extreme insecurity of life and 
property. This arose nainly from two causes. 
One was the prevalence of warfare and the 
domestic restlessness which is fostered by con- 
tinual apprehension of foreign invasion. The 
other was the deficiency of travelling facilities 
and the dangers which beset avellers — the 
chance of shipwreck and the risk or attack by 
pirates at sea and brigands by land. A voyage 
in a clumsy galley was both tedious and 
perilous, and the dread of it found expression 

in various proverbs — " Forget your home when 




1 i 




IZT "^ ^*^'""' "'^ ^°" know not 
how to pray, go to sea"; and the like.* And 

a journey by land had its perils too. A 
merehant could not go down f«,m Jerusalem 
to Jericho without the chance of being waylaid 
and plundered and abused.t 

Hence it came about that, when a man went 
abroad, he had to secure his pi^perty. It he 
ooncaatom *®^ ** ^**"id him. it was exposed 
iSSSSu. ^ **^« depredation of lawless soldiery 
,> '.u u°' * *"™"^*"*0 niob ; and if he took 
It with him. he might be stripped of it bv 
pirates or brigands. A ready device, not in- 
frequently resorted to in sudden emergencies, 
was to buiy treasure in the ground, and unearth 
It when the danger was past Sometimes it 

o Kara r^v XiKtXlay ro ira\ai6y, oSru Ka) ri, it.XaZ > 'x 

a-cendat mare." Cf. Hor. Od. I. iii off. ^ °""' °''^"' 

"lUi robur et ses triplex 
Circa pectus erat. qui fragilem truci 

Commisit pelago ratem 
Primus nee timuit praecipitem Africum 
Decertantem Aquilonibus." 
t St. Luke.x. 30-86. Cf. 2:fJor. xi. 28. 



happened that the owner perished, and then his 
treasure lay concealed until by chance it came 
to light and enriched the lucky finder.* It is 
to such a stroke of good fortune that our Lord 
refers when He likens the Kingdom of Heaven 
to " a treasure hidden in the field ; which a man 
found, and hid ; and in his joy he goeth and 
selleth all that he hath, and buyeth that field." f 
And Josephus relates how, after the destruction 
of Jerusalem, the Romans dug up the gold 
and silver and other precious things which the 
hapless citizens h:^ stored underground "in 
view of the uncertain fortunes of the war."} 
Hence originated that ancient proverb, still in 
use, "Leave no stone unturned" — search dili- 
gently for the hid treasure, and leave no nook 

Tlus, however, was a rude expedient. The 
disadvantage of it was that, though the treasure 
might be safe, it lay idle, and if it suffered 
no diminution, gained no increment It was 

* Hermes was the giver of good-luck, hence a treasure- 
trove was termed ipfiaioy. 

t St. Matt. ziii. 44. 

t De BeU. Jvd. VII. v. 2. 

§ iravra \ldov Klvti. Cf. Erasm. Adag. See a collection 
of illustrative pafsages in Wetstein's note on St. Matt. xiii. 44. 




»u.table enough for . primitive .ge. but u 
e.vJ,„tion .dv^oed, . better methlS ,„ ^ 
J. quired, and the «t of bmking c«ne 

SSISS. '"^ P™«««e- The Mcient banker 

He w« . t " *f "^'■' ""* ^"^"l business. 
"^sl 7r'' »"««. « "'urer. «> investor, 
a trustee. If a man was going abroad and had 

iX '"L'"°"«y ""> the banker, and the 
latter would trade with it during hi^ absencT 

«■""«. ^ « token by way of reeeiot »^' 
rendering it on presentation ofTe" 
«ther to the depositor or to some o^h. 

;^ent '^ «'™" "^^ *""- » «- of 
Two quaUties went to the making of a eood 
banker. One was skiU in testing the '^ 
<xmamu *"™'> were tendered to Hm anH 
Sff^ detecting counterfeits,, since not'wfth 
standmg heavy penalties forgery was 
extensively practised, usually by covering il!! 
or copper with a thin coating of'pSl Si 
The test was twofold-ringing a suspicio^ 

moo^ „yJa,X.. ^,,„.,. .j./^^ 17Z;r<^„"'»'«'«" 



coin on the table and weighing it in scales. 
Detective skill t-ic necessary in the banker's 
own interest; and incorruptible integrity was 
iiece -ry in the interests of his clients and no 
less, indeed, in his own, since fidelity is the 
foundation of trust. A banker's honour was 
generally unimpeachable; but there were ex- 
ceptions, and stories are told of fraudulent 
trustees who, when they could with impunity, 
disowned their tokens and refused to render 
their deposits on dempnd.* 

Banking was thus a conspicuous and familiar 
institution in the ancient world, and our Lord 
made a striking use of it in His 
parable of the Talents.t He describes i'SSjia 
there how a rich man had occasion SK' 
to go abroad for a long time. He *'~'*'^- 
was in the fortunate position of being able to 
leave his estate in competent hands without 
resorting to his banker, since he had three 
servants of proved competence. So, according 
to their several abilities, he entrusted one of 
them with five talents—that is, roughly, £ 1,000, 

* Of. the Btopy of Glaukoe the Spartan in Herod, vi. 86. 
On the bankers {rpaireC'rai) see Becker's Chariclea, Sc. IV. 
t St. Matt. XXV. 14-30. 





ZTkT^^ "^^ ^''' ""^ ^« *»>»«* ^^ one ; 
and bade them tr«lc with his money durinJ 

his •bsence. The first and second diligenUy 

t"?.frdTT^ K^^*^"^ '^'^ *~«*' »>"* the 
third behed his master's confidence. He was 

not dishonest, but he was slothful, and. more- 
over he was aggrieved at the compamtive 
smaUne^ of his trust; and so he hid his talent 
in the earth and on his master's return re- 
stored It as he had received it. undiminished 
but unaugmented. "Thou wicked and slothful 
servant!" said the master. "Thou oughte^ 
to have put my money to the bankers, and at 
my coming I should have ...eived back mine 
own with interest" 

The Evangelists have recorded no other in- 
stance where our Lord referred to the bankers. 
m^E**" ^"* another instance is furnished by 
an unwritten saying of His which is 
more frequently quoted in the patristic literature 
than aTiy other.* and which, in addition to this 
extensive attestation, has much inhei^nt prob- 
abUity. It is a concise epigram, precisely 
the sort of saying which would lodge in the 

• B*8ch (Gebhapdt and Harnack's Tea:t. u. Unter^h. 
V. 4) ha. collected no fewer than «ixty-nine quoU^tr 



memory and pass intact from mouth to mouth 
It ruHs thus :• 

' Show youTMlTM Approved banken.** 

• The MyiQff oeeura thrice in the Clementine Homlli.-, 
ii. &1 : likoyu^ o MaaKaXot t/ftAy ' yty yifttdt rpawiOrat 
loKtfui' u( rwf iy ralf ypa^ic uy&y ftir ioKifiAp iyrny \6ymy 
uy&y ii Kt0i!,\my. |l|. 60 ; xvlll. 20. Grig, t'omm. in Evang. 
Joan. xlx. 2 : riiy iyroXiiv 'Ii;»ov kiyovtny' loKiftoi TfiawiCirat 
yiyivBt. In Evang. Matth. xll. 2. Ambroe. Sjspoa. Evang. 
He. Luc. I. 1 s '* erat sutem populi gratia diacemere tpiritiu, 
ut cognoaceret quos referre deberet in numerum prophe- 
taruiii : quoa autem quoai bonus nummulariua improba- 
ret . . . : eic et nunc in Novo Teataniento multi Bvangelia 
ficribere conati sunt, quas boni nummularii non probarunt" 
Jerome, Episl cxix. 11 (ad Minerviutn et Alexandrum 
Monachoa) : '* Si quia autem contrariaB factionia immurmurat. 
quare eorum explanationea legam, quorum dogmatibua non 
acquieaco, aciat me illud Apoatoli libenter audire : Omnia 
probate, quod bonum est tencte (1 Theas. v. 21), et Salratoria 
verba diceatia : Estate probati nummularii, ut ai quia 
nummua adulter eat, et f:ruram Cepsaria non habet, nee 
aiguatus eat moneta publi( •, reprobetur." Occaaionallj it ia 
called an "apojtoHc* saying. Cf. Dionysiua of Alexandria 
in Eiiseb. H. E. vii. 7 : kirtliiaitTiv ro 6pafia wc ^ToerroXtirn 
^vv^ vvvrpixoy rp kiyovajf rpos roiit ivyarmrfpovt' yiyttrOt 
loKtfioi rpairii,lrai. (See Heinichen, Exc. IX.) Socrat. E. H. 
Hi. 16 : fiXXwc re iraptyyviaty ii^ly S rt Xptvros Kai o rov- 
Tov itvoerroXos' "ylvtadt rpairtCirai ioKiftoi," (Sort "to rrivra 
ZoKiftaUty, TO KaXoy icor«x«5»'roc " (1 Thesa. v. 21), vpooixtiy 
ii "flit ric vfiuQ iarai ovXayuyiy ha rijs ^iXoaoipiat «ol Kivije 
iw&rtic" (Col. ii. 8). In Clem. Alex. Strom. I. xxviii. 178 
it 18 quoted as an exhortation of "the Scriptui-es." 

Ii t 





The saying was applied in two ways by the 
Fathers in their numerous citations of it Most 
patrirtic frequently it was used, like that pre- 
o?£ilSSl: ^^P* °^ S*- P«^ •* " Prove aU things ; 
hold fast that which is genuine -f 
abstain from every form of evil," in connection 
with the office, so urgent in those days, of 
'^C^l^^l^^'^S '^^ t^« Scriptures, 

s/s:.. J '"^ '^°''^''" ^' ^"^^^ styles 

• them, « corns stamped with the image 
of the Great King," from apociyphal writings, 
especially those spurious legends of our Lord's 
childhood— "profane and oldwifish fables," as 
St. Paul terms them |— which circulated so 
extensively in the early Church.§ It was the 
office of "an approved banker" to detect and 
reject such base counterfeits, and guard unim- 
paired and uncorrupted " the genuine deposit "11 
of the evangelic tradition.lT 
Again, the saying was taken as an injunction 

* 1 Thess. V. 21. 
t icaXoy. Cf. Xen. Mem. Ill 
KaXov apyiptoy «cai ro KificriXov. 
t 1 Tim. iv. 7, 
§ Cf . TTie Historic Jesua, chap. ii. 
II 2 Tim. i. 14 : r^v KaX^v TrapadtiicTiy. 
II Cf. The Days of His Fleah, Introd. pp. xv f. 

i. 9 : ^tayiyyuaktiy to re 



to cultivate the art of spiritual discernment. 
Thus, Origen quotes it in dealing with the 
request of the Pharisees that our ^j, ^^^^ 
Lord should "shew them a sign *i«!«n™«nt 
from heaven"* and their accusation that He 
"cast out devils by Beelzebub, the prince of the 
devils." t "They erred," he says, "regarding 
both, the signs on earth and those from heaven, 
not being 'approved bankers,' and not knowing 
how to distinguish the spirits that are at work, 
which sort are from God and which sort are 
in revolt from Him." Thus, "an approved 
banker " is one who has the faculty of spiritual 
discernment, according to the exhortation of 
St. John: I "Beloved, beUeve not every spirit, 
but prove § the spirits, whether they are of 
God: because many false prophets are gone 
out into the world." 

Both these applications turn upon that essen- 
tial characteristic of "an approved banker"— the 
aptitude for distinguishing between ., 
ine genume and the counterfeit. The •»»"««<«. 
saying, however, admits of other and larger 
appUcations, and one is suggested by an in- 

* St. Matt. xvi. 1. 
t 1 John iv. 1. 


t St. Matt. xii. 24. 




!f ! 

',: i 




toestir^ paraUel in that charming allegoor, 
TAe Tablet, . sort of Greek «/^«* J>roIrZ 
reputedly the work of Cebes. oi:: of thelS 
eomj»ny of tos disciples who attended Socn.tes 

"Z*n^/^' .''T " *^ P"^" «^ Athens., 
m no f«^ m Fortune; think nothing sure, 
nothing steadfast which you receive from her 
neitter «cko„ it your own. For there k 
nothmg to prevent her from Uking it awav 
^ and giving it to «,other, as frequently 
she B wont For this rea. , then, bTuncon 
quered by her gifU, and neither rejoice wh^ 
she gives nor despond when she takes away; 
neither reproach her nor praise her. For she 
do« nothing with reason^ut evciyJZ t 
random and haphazard. Therefore wLcr not 

the Ud bankers.t For they, when they receive 
money from men, rejoice and think it their 
own ; and when it is required of them again, 
are untated and fancy themselves ill-usedTno 
remembenng that they received the deposii^ 
the understandmg that there was nothing t^ 
prevent the depositor from reclaiming them." 

* Ceb. Tab. xxxi. 

i rots KaKo'ii rpavfiirtuc 


This is a salutary, if somewhat Stoical, ex- 
hortation ; and it points to the large and 
profoundly Christian lesson which our onriifa* 
unwritten saying conveys, and which, *"■*• 
if it be indeed a saying of His, our Lord chiefly 
intended. That lesson is that a man's life is a 
sacred trust which God has committed to him, 
and of which he must one day render an 
account. We are God's bankers, and we must 
show ourselves approved. We must discharge 
our trust. 

Such is the Christian attitude toward life; 
and it is the golden secret at once of satis- 
faction and of success. It is this «. 
Ideal that redeems hfe from pettiness, •"««»>*«»• 
and delivers a man from the curse of discon- 
tent. What was it that moved the unfaithful 
servant in our Lord's parable to play so ill a 
part? It was dissatisfaction with his master's 
appointn ent and resentment at the smaUness 
of his trust compared with the larger respon- 
sibilities and opportunities of his feUow-servants. 
And so he entertained hard thoughts of his 
master, and instead of trading the more diU- 
gently with his one poor talent buried it in the 
ground. This is the spirit which ruins many a 




life. It seems to a man so hard that his lot 
should be east in an obscure place amid petty 
circumstances and trivial employments, with no 
chance of winning distinction, no opportunity 
for provmg his powers; and he is apt to lose 
heart, and grow bitter, and, in fretting for 
greater, neglect the opportunities which he has 
The remedy lies in recognising that, what- 
ever our lot may be. it is God's appointment. 
ito>«a«i7. '* ^ a sacred "rust, and our part 

•. r . .^ ,'^ *° '^''^P* '* '^y^y ^^ discharge 
It faithftilly, in the spirit of these lines of 
Archbishop Trench; 

"Thou cam'st not to thy place by accident. 
It 18 the very place God meant for thee ; 
A^d shouldst thou there amaU scope for action see. 
Do not tor this give room to discontent." 

This is the spirit which saves a man from 
fretting at a narrow lot, from cowardice in the 
face of difficulties, from demoralisation when 
things go against him. 

And, moreover, it is the spirit which brings 
enlargement and discovers the pathway to pro- 
motion. The complaint that opportunity is 
lackmg IS a poor and cowardly pretence 


Opportunity is never lacking, and what seems 
a lack of opportunity is in truth, for a brave 
and faithftil heart, the noblest oppor- Ti„p.thwa 
tunity of all.* Inquire of one who ♦op'SjS. 
has achieved distinction, and in most instances 
you wiU find that he started his career amid 
weakness and discouragement, but he accepted 
his lot humbly and resolutely, and gathered 
strength and wisdom day by day, fitting himself 
m obscunty for larger and nobler service- 
"preparmg in winter quarters for the sun^ 
campaign": and now that he has gained his 
reward, he looks back on those years which 
seemed so bleak and barren, and blesses God 
for the opportunity which they brought, and 
the grace vouchsafed him to profit by it. 

This is the secret of advancement, the sure 
the only pathway to honour. There is a 
Rabbinical story of Moses, that during 
his season of exile in the land of •toT*"*'*' 
Midian, while he was serving Jethro as a 
shepherd, never dreaming of the exaltation 
which was m store for him, he one day missed 

* Cf M. Aurel. xi. 7: "How distinctly it appears th*. 
there is no other condition of life so suLhi. ? ^., ^ 
Phising as this in which you now hrp^^t Jr ' '"" 





a lamb out of the flock entrusted to his care ; 
and he went in quest of it. After a long and 
weary search he found it in the desert, "sick, 
and helpless, and ready to die," and laid it 
gently on his shoulder, and bore it home and 
dressed its wounds. And that night the Lord 
appeared unto Moses, and said unto him : 
"Because thou hast been merciful to a man's 
beast, thou shalt be shepherd of My flock, 
even Israel." 

" He that is faithful in a very little is faithful 
also in much. If therefore ye have not been 
faithful in that which is another's, who will give 
you that which is your own ? " * « With good 
reason did our Master say : * Show yourselves 
approved bankers.'" 

* St. Luke xvi. 10, 12. 


^ and 
' sick, 
id it 
3 and 
him : 



I give 



'Thft History of ihe World is not intelligible apart from 
a GoTemment of the World." 

Wu^BLH VON Humboldt. 


t from 



'ITT'HEN our Lord dwelt among men, He 
▼ ▼ consecrated and ennobled whatsoever He 
touched. The very language which a, ^^ 
He employed was transfigured and "^y**^"'- 
invested with a richer and diviner significance. 
The word "mystery" is an instance of this. 
It belonged originaUy to the ritual luttMuumi 
of the Eleusinian Mysteries, and it "•• 
denoted the secret which was entrusted to the 
initiate,* and which he was pledged to preserve 
inviolate, t Hence it came to be used of a 

* 6 fufivtifiivot. 

t Lucian's Demonax would not be initiated, because, "if 
the mysteries were bad, he would not keep silence to those 
who were not yet initiated but would deter them from the 
ntes ; and if they were good, he would proclaim them to aU 
as a philanthropic duty." 



"secret" generally, as in Menander's cynical 
epigram : ♦ ^ 


"It you ne'er let youp friend your wctet know 
You need not fear him when he turns your foe." 

Our Lord appropriated the word, and, as the 
Psahnist had spoken of « the secret of the 
Lord which "is with them that fear Him,"t 
and the Prophet of ' the secret " which the Lord 
"revealed unto His servants tht prophets," t so 
He q,oke of "the mysteries of the Kingdom 
of Heaven," the blessed truths which He 
ju chiirtun revealed but which hidden from 
"•• the wise and understanding who 

lacked the teaching of the Father and the 
inspiration of the Holy Spirit.§ " The disciples 
came and said unto Him. Why speakest Thou 
unto them in parablcc ? And He answered 
and said unto them, Unto you it is given to 

* Fragm. 687 : 

ftvarfiptoy erov fii^ Kartlvpc rf ^/\«*, 

Kob nil <t>olindpe aMy ixOpiy yiy6fityoy. 

♦ Psa. XXV. 14. 
t Amos iii. 7. 

S St. Matt xl. 26-27 ; xvi. 17. 


kiiow the mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven, 
but to them it is not given."* 

St. Paul received the word from the Master's 
teaching and unfolded the idea. It is used in 
his theology of a providential purpose uiu..Paauii. 
hidden for ages and at length mani- ^•''^"•y: 
fcsted in Christ, especially that purpose so 
wonderful in the Apostle's eyes— the ingather- 
ing of the Gentiles and their incorpc-ation with 
Israel in the Commonwealth of God. " By 

revelation was made known unto me ., ^.^^ 

the mystery, which in other ages was J™^ ^ 
not made known unto the sons of **'*^5 
men, as it hath now been revealed unto His 
holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit ; to wit, 
that the Gentiles are fellow-heirs, and fellow- 
members of the body, and fellow-partakers of the 
promise in Christ Jesus through the Gospel." f 

* St. Matt. xiii. 10, 11. 

+ Eph. iii. 3, 5, 6, CJf. Col. i. 26, 27 ; Rom. xvi. 25-27. 
Thus ixvmiiptov signified generally a symbol, anything with 
a hidden meaning ; and so St. Paul applies the term to the 
Incarnation (1 Tim. iii. 16), since God was at once veiled 
and revealed by the flesh, and to marriage (Eph. v. 32) as 
symbolising the relation between Christ and His Bride the 
Church. Hence in patristic theology it came to mean a 
Sacrament, since, according to the scholastic definition, a 
Sacrament is "• Tisible form of invisible grace." 




For ages it had seemed as though the Gentiles 
were outcasts from God's love and care; hut 
all the while they were in His heart, and His 
patient purpose of grace regarding them was 
bemg wrought out toward its fulfilment and 
mamfestation in Christ. 

Such was the Apostle's philosophy of history; 
and he saw the future ia the light which Christ 
ahiMM ^^ ^^^ "Pon the past, and reached 
j^poMnot^ out in faith to the manifestation of 
other mysteries as yet unrevealed. 
1 hus, It seemed as though the blessing of the 
Gentiles had been obtained at a heavy cost— 
the cruel calamity of the rejection of Israel 
She had been thrust out that they might be 
brought in; and the thought was for the 
Apostle a "groi sorrow and unceasing pain 
m his heart."* He could not acquiesce in it, 
and he recognised here another "mystery" 
which would one day be gloriously revealed. 
A hidden providence was at work, and he 
guessed the ultimate issue. Israel's rejection 
was not her final doom. It was indeed the 
penalty of her unbelief, but it was designed to 
move her to repentance. The spectacle of her 

* Rom. ix. 2. 


<iMa loss and the enrichment of the despised 
(ientiles would provoke her to jealousy, and 
she would turn to the Lord. "I would not, 
hrcthrcn," he writes to the heathen converts at 
Home,* " have you ignorant of this mystery, 
lest ye be wise in your own conceits, that a 
hardening in part hath befallen Israel, until the 
fullness of the Gentiles be come in ; and so all 
Israel shall be saved. For as ye in time past 
were disobedient to God, but now have obtained 
mercy by their disobedience, even so have these 
also now been disobedient, that by the mercy 
shewn to you they also may now obtain mere}-. 
O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom 
and the knowledge of God I how unsearchable 
are His judgements, and Ilis ways past 
tracing out ! " 

And so the Apostle turned history into 
prophecy, t The revelation of the mystery 
of God's past dealings with the 
Gentiles emboldened him to antici- prophecy of 
pate a no less glorious revelation """ 

of the mystery of His present dealings with 

♦ Rom, xi. 25, 26, 30, 31, 33. 

+ Cf. Calvin on 1 Cor. xiv. 6: "A prophet will be an 
interpreter and minister of revelation." 





Israel, after the manner of the Quaker 

"I dimly guess from blessings known 
Of greater out of sight, 
And, with the chastened Psalmist, own 
His judgments too are right. 

"I know not what the future hath 
Of marvel or surprise, 
Assured alone that life and death 
His mercy underlies." 

The idea of the mystery of God was not 
the Apostle's own: he derived it from the 
Annnwrittan Master; and it is somewhat sur- 

uying about • • .1 . . , 

"the mystery pnsmg that SO nch a thought should 
Of the Lord." ^^^j. Qjjy ^^^^ ^ ^^^ j^^^^,^ recorded 

teaching. It does not, however, follow that He 
expressed it only once. It would be frequently 
on His hps, and another instance is furnished 
by an unwritten saying of His which Clement 
of Alexandria quotes thus : * 

" It was not of grudgingness that our Lord gave the charge 
m a certain Gospel : ' My mystery is for Me and the sons of 
My house.'" 

• Strom. V. X. 63 : oi yap ^flcfiiv, 0,,J, napf,yyti\ty 6 
Kipiot iy nvi thay.M^- ^variipioy i^y i^o\ ral role viola ten, 
oucov fiov. CUmmt. Horn. xix. 20 : fUfiy/ifitda rov Kvpiov ,'ifxiiy 


It! meaning. 

The meaning of the saying is that, even as 
the secret lore of the ancient Mysteries was 
hidden from the uninitiated, so "to 
th:\a that are without,"* lacking the 
ilJjmination of the Holy Spirit, the mysteries 
of God remain unrevealed. And this is a 
truth which our Lord frequently proclaimed. 

He was the revelation of the Unseen Father. 
" He that hath seen Me," He said,t " hath seen 
the Father " ; yet only a few of those 
who beheld Him in the days of His StSuf "'^ 
flesh recognised the Father in Him. '""' 
And the reason is that to them alone was 
given that spiritual vision which is "the art 
of seeing things invisible." St. John saw Jesus, 
and "the eyes of his heart were enlightened," | 
and he beheld His glory, and his testimony to 
that which he saw and heard is a Gospel of 
the grace of God in our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Caiaphas and Pontius Pilate also saw Jesus, 
and had either of them written a narrative of 

«ro« MairicaXov uq ivreWSfuvoc elirev tifily ra fivtrrfipia ifiol koi 
role vio'ic Tov o'lKov fiov ipvXalaTt. Cf. Isa. xxiv. 16 (Theo- 
dotion's version) : ro fivariipidv ftov ifun xal role t/xolf. Vulg. : 
"secretum meum mihi, secretum meum mihl." 

* St. Mark iv. 11. t St. John xiv. 0. 

i Eph. i. 18. 




his dealings with Him, it would have been a 
i-emarkable book and, to the historian, invalu- 
able. It would have shed light on much that 
is obscure, and it might well have been a 
literary masterpiece. But it would in ao wise 
have been a Gospel. For neither to Caiaphas 
nor to Pilate was granted " the Spirit of wisdom 
and revelation in the knowledge of Him."* 
The glory of the Lord was hidden from them. 
They saw Him, but they did not see the 
Father in Him. And therefore He said : " No 
one knoweth the Son, save the Father ; neither 
doth any know the Father, save the Son, and 
he to whomsoever the Son willeth to reveal 
Him." t " My mystery is for Me and the sons 
of My house." 

The saying applies also to the understanding 
of the Holy Scriptures. They are the Word 
(a) Bpiritnai of God, but He speaks in them 
Smngof only to the souls tliat know Him. 
the word. «rpjjg natural man," says St. Paul^ 
" receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God : 
for they are foolishness unto him ; and he 
cannot know them, because they are spiritually 

Eph. i. 17. 

i 1 Cor. ii. 14. 

t St. Matt. xL 27. 


discerned." As Jeremy Taylor has it,* "To 
evil persons the whole system of this wisdom 
is insipid and flat, dull as the foot of a rock, 
and unlearned as the elements of our mother 
tongue ; but so are mathematics to a Scythian 
boor, and music to a camel." The reason is 
that the sacred writers were taught by the 
Holy Spirit, and unless we share His inspira- 
tion, we cannot understand what they have 
written. "The same Spirit," says Calvin,t 
"who spoke by the mouth of the Prophets, 
must needs penetrate into our hearts to 
persuade us that they faithfully uttered the 
mandate of divine inspiration. And this con- 
nection is most aptly put by Isaiah in these 
words: J 'My Spirit which is in thee, and the 
words which I have put in thy mouth and 
thy seed's, shall never fail.' It distresses some 
good men that, while the ungodly murmur 
with impunity against the Word of God, there 
is no clear proof ready to their hand. As if 
indeed the Spirit were not called *a seal' and 
♦an earnest' for confirming the faith of the 
godly for this reason, that, until He enlightens 

* The Grreat Exemplar, Preface 43. 
t Inatit. I. vii. 4. J lix. 21. 


their minds, they always waver amid many 
hesitations." Hence it is that only as the Lord 
opens our eyes can we behold wonders out of 
His Law.* It is told of St. Bonaventura, the 
Seraphic Doctor, that, being asked by his friend, 
St. Thomas Aquinas, how he had acquired his 
deep knowledge of God, he said nothing, but 
pointed to the Crucifix. It was there that the 
mysteries of Heaven had been revealed to him. 
This is ever tie golden secret, and it was 
practised by St. Vincent Ferrer, who always 
wrote with the Cn^cifix before him. ♦' Study," 
he said, "fatigues and drains the mind and 
heart. Gk) from time to time to refresh them 
at the feet of Jesus Christ under His Cross." 

The saying finds yet another appUcation in 
the principle of the Spiritual Independence of 

(3) S!>irittud *^^ Church of the Lord Jesus Christ 
independ- and His sole headship over her. He 
is the only Lord of the conscience, 
and His Word is the only rule of faith ; and 
it is a usurpation of His prerogative when a 
secular authority intrudes into things spiritual 
or presumes to prescribe a creed. "Be not 
ye called Rabbi," says our Lord : t "for One 

* Paa. cxix. 18. t St. Matt, xxiii. 8-10, 



is your teacher, and all ye are brethren. And 
call no man your father on the earth : for One 
is your Father, which is in heaven. Neither 
be ye called maters: for One is your master, 
even the Christ." "My mystery is for Me 
and the sons of My house." 

The principle was nobly expressed in the 
sixth century by Theodoric the Ostrogoth, the 
first barbarian emperor of the West, rbwuone 
in his remonstrance with Justin, the "OJi^Mn- 
persecuting emperor of Constantinople.* "To 
pretend," he wrote, "to a dominion over the 
conscience is to usurp the prerogative of God. 
By the nature of things the power of sovereigns 
is confined to political government ; they have 
no right of punishment but over those who 
disturb the public peace; the most dangerous 
heresy is that of a sovereign who separates 
himself from part of his subjects because 
they believe not according to his belief." 
There could hardly be a more accurate defini- 
tion of the doctrme of Spiritual Independence 
—that historic principle which the Scottish 

* Milman, LcOin Chriatianity, Bk. Ill, chap. iii. Cf. 
TertuU. Ad Scap. 2: "It belongs not to religion to compel 
religion, which ought to b* u«dertakea voluntarily, not by 


Church has been especially called in the pro- 
vidence of God to maintain and vindicate.* 
It is the principle which has actuated all her 
contendings since the Reformation ; and never 
was it more strikingly affirmed than during 
^^^^^^ that memorable interview between 
JliS^vi"* "^^"i^^ VI aiid a deputation of the 
clergy at Falkland Palace in the 
year 1596, when Andrew Melville took the 
angry king by the sleeve, and styled him 
"God's sillie vassal." "Sir," said he, "as divers 
times before I have told you, so now again I 
must tell you, there are two kings and two 
kingdoms in Scotland : there is king James, the 
head of this commonwealth, and there is Christ 
Jesus, the King of the Church, whose subject 
James the sixth is, and of whose kingdom he 
is not a king, nor a lord, nor a head, but a 
member. We will yield to you your place, 
and give you all due obedience; but again I 
say, you are not the head of the Church ; you 
cannot give us that eternal life which we seek 
for even in this world, and you cannot deprive 

* Cf. Domer, Syet of Christ. Doctr. TV. 151 : "The idea 
of the sole sovereignty of Christ has been specially developed 
by the Scottish Church." 


us of it. Sir, when you were in your swaddling 
clothes, Christ Jesus reigned freely m this land 
in spite of all His enemies." 

This principle of the Spiritual Independence 
of the Church is identical with the Reformed 
doctrine of the kingly office of our «. . 
i^ora; and it prohibits alike pontifical «'<"»»«• 
or hierarchical dominance and civil usurpation 
of spiritual authority. The Church is the 
household of Christ,* and He is her only 
Head and His will her only law. It is 
sacrilege when a stranger intermeddles with 
her affairs ; and it is disloyalty when, whether 
for fear or for favour, she submits to a 
stranger's authority. "We remember our Lord 
and Master how He commanded and said unto 
us: *Keep the mysteries for Me and the sons 
of My house.' " 

• Heb. ui. 6, & 

VnwritH^ Sayinat. 




"Thou, O Spirit, that doth prefer 
Before all templeg the upright heart and pure. 
Instruct me, for thou know'st ; thou from the first 
Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread, 
Dove-like, safst briK)ding on the vast abyss. 
And madest it pregnant : what in me is dark, 
Illumine; what is low, raise and support." 




'T^HERE were two main controversies 
A between our Lord and His implacable 
adversaries the Pharisees during His 
ministry. The first and chief was, SiS?"' 
as we have seen,* the question of '""""^ 
Sabbath observance ; and - second, hardly 
less bitter, related to those ceremonial ablutions 
which the Pharisees practised with such dili- 
gent and ridiculous scrupulosity.! "For the 
Pharisees, and all the Jews, except they wash 
their hands diligently, eat not, holding the 
tradition of the elders : and when they come 
from the marketplace, except they wash them- 
selves, they eat not : and many other things 
there be, which they have received to hold, 

* Cf. pp. 24 ff. 

+ Cf. llie Daya of Eia Flesh, p. 48. 




washings of cups, and pots, and brasen 
vessels."* The ritual was sorely abused. It 
fostered that spirit of extemalism which was 
the curse of Jewish reUgion in later days ; and 
our Lord steadfastly neglected it. insisting upon 
punty of heart as God's sole requirement. 

The Evangelists have recorded several striking 
instances of His controversies with the Phari- 
Ai>«iooB.t« ^®®^ ^^ *^^ score ;t and another is 
JJJJ^ furnished by a papyrus from the 
treasure-trove of Oxyrhynchus.l It 
IS a fragment of a lost Gospel, and it relates 
a dramatic encounter between Jesus and a 
Pharisee in the Temple at Jerusalem. The 
papyrus is somewhat mutilated. especiaUy 
towards the end ; but the task of restoration 
IS generaUy easy, and the story runs thus : § 

"And He took them and brought them Into the place of 
purification itself, and He was walking about in the Temple 
And a certain Pharisee, a high priest, Levi by name, ap- 
proached and met them, and said to the Saviour- 'Who 
permitted thee to walk this place of purification and to see 

♦ St. Mark vii. 3, 4. 

t Cf. St. Matt. XV. 1-20; St. Mark vU. 1-23; St Luke 
xi. e« ; St. Matt, xxili. 25. 26. 

t Oxyrh. Pap. 840, vol. v. pp. 1 ff. 
§ For the Greek text see pp. 141 f. 


these holy veHHcIn, when thou haat not wa«hed thyself, nor 

yet have thy rliwiples bathed their fwt P But. belriR defiled, 

thou host walked thiH Temple, though it is a ilenn plare, 

whirh none other, save one that hath washed himself and 

rlmnged his Karments, w«lk»<th, neither dareth lie to see 

tlK'se holy vesHi'ls.' And HtmiMrhtway the Saviour Btoo<l 

with His diwipleH and answered him : ' Art thou. b«'i»K 

hoi-e in the Temple, clean ? ' The other saitli to Him : ' I 

am clean. For I have vva«hed myself in the pool of David. 

and by the one stair I descended and by the other I 

ascended ; and I arrayed myself in white garments and 

clean ; and then I came and lofikod upon these holy vessels." 

Tlie Saviour answered and said unto him: 'Woe, ye blind 

that see not I Thou hast washed thyself with these pouring 

waters in wliich dogs and swine have been cast niglit and 

day, and hast laved and wiped the outside skin which the 

harlots and the flute-girls anoint ami wash and Iwautify 

to excite the lust of men ; but within they are filled with 

scorpions and every sort of wickedness. But I and My 

disciples, who, thou saycst. have not been l)athed. have 

been Iwithed in the waters of eternal life that come from 

(the throne of God)."" 

It would appear from the handwriting of the 
fragment that the book dated from the fourth 
century ; but it was only a copy, and 
the original was far older. " Tiie fursecSid' 
holy quaternion of the Gospels'* "''*'^ 
had gained universal acceptance ere the close of 
the second century, and therealter apocryphal 

* Euseb. H. E. iii. 25 : n)** hylav riv thayytXiw rfrpanrvv. 


writers confined themselves to the compaation 
of legends regarding the chadhood of Jesus. 
His ministry was consecrated ground, and they 
held aloof from it. Hence it would foUow 
that, smce this Gospel deals with His ministry 
It was written ere the close of the second 
centuiy And certainly it belongs to a later 
penod than our canonical Gospels, since, whereas 
they always speak of "Jesus" or "the Lord" 
It speaks of "the Saviour "-an appeUation 
which came mto vogue in post-apostolic days * 
It may be assumed then that the Gospel was 
composed during the latter half of the second 
j^tortcu century. This is a high antiquity. 
• and there is no improbabaity in the 
mcident It was the custom of our Lord, when 
He visited Jerusalem, to walk and teach in the 
Court of the Temple, and He had frequent 
encounters with the rulers there.t Neverthe- 

* The title was at first disliked because <'l^ Sf ^ u 
by king, and en,p«„r. (cf. iTi JZT ul fZ^' 
An^. B^, pp 348, 388 ,.), ..a (2) it , Jti^ ^ 
\ alentinians (cf. Iren. I 1 <i^ • h,,f ,•*. . . ^ ^® 

o„/i it. ,- . ' ' °"* '*• ^o"Q established itsplf 

and^jts^use here « no evidence that this Gospel was a G^o^t 

t Cf St Matt. «i. 12. 14. 15; xxi. 23-27- xxvi 55- 
St. John vii. 14, 28 ; X. 23 ; xviii. 20. ' 


less the details of the narrative are glaringly 

Jesus is represented as walking with His 
disciples in "the place of purification," which 
is evidently conceived as a court ^, ^^ 
within the sacred precmcts, open to ^^vognpn^ 
public resort. There was no such *•»!*•; 
place in the Temple. There was indeed a 
" Chamber of Washers " or " House of Baptism," 
where the officiating priests had to bathe ere 
entering on the services of the day; and there 
was, moreover, the laver of brass m the Court 
of the Temple between the porch and the 
altar, where they had also to wash their hands 
and their feet.* But it was the priests alone 
who had to perform those ceremonial ablutions 
and array themselves in white garments : t it 
was not required of ordmary worshippers like 
our Lord and His disciples. Nor is there any 
record of a "pool of David," approached and 
quitted by separate stairs, and poUuted by dogs 
and swine. 

Again, the combination "a certain Pharisee, 

♦ Exod XXX. 17-21 ; xl. SO-32. Cf. Schlirer, Hist. ofJeu,. 
Peop^, II. i. p. 278 ; Lightfoot. Har. Hebr., vol. i. pp. 643 ft 
T Schiirep, ibid. p. 276. 


ir I ■> 



a high priest," is somewhat suspicious, since the 
priesthood was generaUy recruited from the 
(a)ai«i«rtiy Sadducean order.* The rule, how- 
ever, was not absolute: there are 
instances of priestly Pharisees,! and it is possible 
that there may have been a high priest of the 
Pharisaic order in our Lord's day. He need 
not have been the acting high priest, since the 
high priests emeriti retained the title. 

The case would seem to be that this Gospel 
was written in Egypt generations after the 
Auatorioai destruction of Jerusalem, when the 
5SS«i Holy City and its Holy Place were 
«*'"*^- only a vague memory. The writer 
had heard a credible tradition of an encounter 
between Jesus and a Pharisee in the Court of 
the Temple, and when he wove it into his 
narrative, he depicted the situation according 
to his fancy, and his representation is shaped 
and coloured by Iiis own circumstances. It is 
an Egyptian temple and Egyptian ritual that 
he has in view; and when he inserted that 
rhetorical touch of "the waters in which dogs 
and swine have been cast night and day," he 

• Cf . The Days of His Mesh, p. 42. 
t Cf. Schiirer. ibid. II. ii. p. 30. 


was thinking of the stagnant pool of his 
Egyptian viUage. The phrase "harlots and 
flute-girls " is another touch of local colouring. 
Flute-girls and dancing-girls figured at the 
heathen symposia, and belonged to the order 
of tietaroB* And the high priest's complaint 
that the disciples "walked the place of puri- 
fication and saw the holy vessels " though they 
had not "bathed their feet," recaUs the heathen 
proverb " with unwashed feet." t It was applied 
to one who presumed to meddle with things 
too high for him, and originated in the ritual 
of the Greek Mysteries, where the initiate had 
first to undergo ceremonial ablution. It was 
the familiar ritual of an Egyptian temple that 
the writer had in view when he put this alien 
language in the mouth of a Jewish high priest. 
The conclusion, then, is that the encounter 
in the Temple which our fragment records is 
probably an authentic incident of our 
Lord's ministry, but it is dressed up ^X^L 
in alien trappings. The Temple at *^'^'"*- 
Jerusalem had long perished, and the writer 
had never seen it, nor had he investigated its 

* Cf. Becker, CJiariclea, pp. 245, 344. 
t Cf. The Days of His Fle»h, p. 440. 


Imtoric monuments; and his fancy figured i 
after the familiar style of the temples whici 
he knew m the land of Egypt. His narrativ< 
adds nothmg to our knowledge of the Lord', 
mmistiy yet it is in no wise valueless. And 
Its value hes in the contrast which it presents 
to the canonical Gospels. There is no charac- 
tenstic of the latter more impressive than 
theu- mmute and unfailing verisimiUtude-the 
accuracy of their references to the contem- 
porary scenes and manners of the Holy Land 
As one studies that monumental work, Dr' 
John Lightfoot's HcrrcB Hebraicce et Talmudicc., 
with Its wealth of illustrations from Rabbinical 
hterature, one discovers how faithful is the local 
colouring of the Gospels: they breathe the very 
atmosphere of the country and the time. And 
when one turns to a document like this fragment 
and marks how iU the writer has succeed^ in 
reconstructmg a remote and traditional situation 
one reahses how sure it is that the evangelic 
story IS no tissue of « cumiingly devised fables " * 
but the testimony of men who had companied 
with Jesus, and spake of the things which they 
had seen and heard. ^ 

* a Pet i. 18. 


Kol wapaXaftwv airrovc 
tMyayiv «Jc airb rh ayv,vr{,piov • koI 
irtpunazH iv ry Upt^. ^^a irpo<Tt(\). 
e^v ^apt<rai6c nc ipx^hs Aiv(ug)} 
ri 6vofia trvvirvxiv aino'iQ Kat t(T,r«;) 
rv <Tu>pC rlf inirp^iv aoi irariuv) 
TovTo rb ayvtvTi'ipiov koI iS^t'iv (row)- 
ra ri 5yia <,Kfi„ ;u^e \ovaa{fi)ivv Kh)' 
« ti^v tUv naOnrdv aov roht; ,r(o'^ac /3a)- 
TTi^eivr^viX iAAd tUfioXviufdvoQ) § 
e^arjlffac roiJro r6 t'tp^v r(oVov Sv). 
TO «atfap6v av oiStic 5(AAoc el A*^) 
Xow(t4;«voc <cai aAX^($ae ri IvSiJ). 
^ro wartl oi^i 6(pw roXftf rawa) 

* This word occurs nowhere in the New T-wtament 

indisS:r"' " ""^' ""^ "^ -"--^ »«'t-- be-« 
t Of. St. John xiii. 1-16. 
I Of. ICor. Tiii. 7; Bey. iii. 4. xiv. 4; 3Cor. vU. L 



ra &yia muCn. KtA (r(rdc tvOiwc 6 oZp) 

o{vv t)oU fUiOnrdi(t airiKptdti aitrtf') 

<rv ovv ivravda &v iv rc^ Itpi^ xaOa- 

ptint; X^yw awri^ UtivoC xadaptCw' iXowU' 

Unv yap iv ry X«>vp row a5 icai Bi iri- 

pat K\ifMKog KartXOiJv Si irtpat 

a(v)qX0ov ical Atvica ivBvfuiTa ivt- 

SvaafiJiv Kol Kadapa koX rSn j|X0ov 

Koi irpooifi\f\pa roi/roic toic aylotf 

OKtdfoiv. 6 owp vpoQ airhv avo- 

(Kpi)Of\f tlmv oimt, Tv^Xol ft^ 6pwv 

r(e)c'* oh tXowta roirotc roiq xtofiivoiQ 

C(S)o«v cv olc kOvsc Ka\ xoipot /3l/3Xi|v- 

(toi) vvktoq Kol nfiipat koI vt^iu- 

(v)oc rh iicTOc 8l/>/ua t ^wtp 

(ica)i al v6pvat Koi a{i) ai/XirrptSic ftvpi- 

(K)ov(mv K)at Xovowiv koI a/ifixown 

(ical K)aX\wwtZovat wpof iwidvfii- 

(av r)wv avwv' IvSodcv Si I IkcI- 

(voi «-f«-X)i}p<i>rai § trKopwluv \\ koi 

(wa<nic ico)icfoc. tyw Si xd o{ 

♦ Of. St. Matt XV. U. xxiii. 16. 17, 19, 24, 2fl ; St. John 
ix. 89^1. 
t Of. St. Matt, xxiii. 26. 
t Of. St. Matt. xxiU. 27, 28. 
S A slip for reirX^put'Tai. 
II Of. St. Ltiko X. 19, xi. 12. 


(jiaOnrat ftov) o&c Xlyctc ftri /3f/3a- 
{irrtoOai /3(/3a)fifu6a iv CSan Z*o- 
(qc alwvtov rot)c lAOovmv airo (rov) 
(0p($vov ©i>).* 

* A purely conjectural lupplement. Of. Ber. xzii 
rora/iof iiaroc (*t^e bewo0tv6fuvov ex nA 6p6yov Qtov. 









AKhWf •.. ... ,,, 
AlezAoder Severna 
Alexander the Oreal ... 


Animal worship 

Apostles, missions of Uie 




Arnold, Sir Edwin 


188 f. 

11 & 

78 f. 

78 f. 









5«««w» 1041. 

Barses of Edessa ... 86 
Becker, W. A. ... 106,189 

B«»tley 14 

Bonaventura IM 

Bridges, none in Pales- 

„ «o« , 74 f. 

Brigands 101 f. 

Browning, E. B. ... 68 

Banyan w flf. 

Bomet, Bishop 49 

• •• 

Oaltdi .. 


^les, ... 
OmLntioii, uiotonl 




121, 136 






Clement of Alexandria 

/.I * .» 48,89,107.123 
Clement of Borne 107, 123 

Codex Besa as 

"Coming again" ... 44ft 
Communion of the saints 89 
Copyists' blunders ... 31 f. 
Cowley 80 

DAimt,H.A. 73 

Deissmann 86, 186 

Df^ymiM 94 

Diogenes Laertius ... 14 
Dionysias of Alexandria 107 

5|*»°*«* lllf. 

Diaorimination of scrip- 



Egypt Exploration 


Ephraem Syms... 






. 89 f. 




IrsUne of Linlathen ... 48 

Erubhin jg 

Eosebins ... 68,107,186 

Fl&tu Neapolls ... 40 
Frands of Sales ... 48 

Fotehpnr-Sikri ... „. 71 




Oiimuf, innthMing of 1191. 

OUakoi tiitBputan . 
Ooipeii, Twidmiliftiide of 
Gregory of Nazianzui ... 
Outnrie, Junei 


Headship of Christ 


Hermes ... ... 



Hilary of Poiotiers 



• •• 

• •• 







loNATiua ... 29, 67, 88, 94 

Immortality 64 

India, Apostles in ... 72 

Irenaus 6, 186 

Israel, rejection of ... 120 f. 

JAmsVI 128 

Jashar, Book of ... 16 

Jerome 08, 107 

Jesus, seeing the Father 

John at Ephesus 



Justin I 

Justin Martyr ... 

coX^Ci " genuine " 
caroXa/i/Sdvciv ... 


Kingship of Christ 
Koran and Jesoi 

• •• 





... 127 

29, 40 ff., 96 




128 f. 


LuaBTOM 49 

Life, Ohristiao attitude 

■o ••• ••• ••• 111 

Ligfatfoot, John... 187, 140 

I<otf »• 



Marcus Aurelius 
Molville, Andrew 





Mohammedans and Jesus 

Mole of Tyre 

Monastic spirit 

Mosea and the lost lamb 
Motive the test of action 
Mysteries, Qreek 
"Mystery" ... 

Newton, Sir Isaao 


... 117 


... 102 

40. 100, 118 

... 67 ff, 



... 127 

... 182 


72 ft 



118 f. 


117, 189 

117 ff., 119 



Origen 94, 107 ff, 

Oxyrhynchus 86 B. 

„ papyri 29, 60, 66, 86 ff., 184 

irivra \l9w kIvu 

• •• 


Papias ... 

• te 

• •# 


Papyrus ... 


• •• 



• •• 

• •■ 


Peter, saving 


• •• 


• •• 

• •• 

40 ff: 


• •• 

• •• 



• •• 

• •• 


Pirates ... 

• •« 

• •• 


PUto ... 

• •• 




■ •• 

• •a 


Pliny ... 


• •• 



• •# 

• •• 


Promise of Spirit 

• •• 

66 f. 

Promotion, way to 


112 f. 

Property, insecurity 








100, 118 

67 ff. 









b 118 f. 

I 88 

117, 189 

ff., 119 











, 69, 61 




66 f. 

112 f. 




BiADtNiss for Lord'a up- 

80 ff. 

ieignof tha Saints"... 
Betreata of our Lord ... 

Sabbatb day'i joomey 


"Sahbatiae the Sab- 

" Saviour, the " 



Scriptures, ^piritaal un- 
dentanding of 

Second Advent 



Smith, W. 


Socrates Sobolasticus ... 

Solitary commonion ... 


Spirit promised 

Spiritual discernment ... 

Spiritual independence 




Strabo ... 

Sychem ... 

49 f. 

80 ff. 


24 ff. 



187 f. 


124 ff 


76 ff 




90 f. 

66 f. 

26 ff 
79, 85, 102 

Taunm, parable of ... 


Taylor, Jeremy ... 




Theodorio the Ostrogoth 


Thomas Aquinas 
Tradition*, The 
Travellinc facilities 

Treasure buried 

Trench, Archbishop ... 

Trust, life a 

^yre ... ««« ,,, 


Vincent Ferrer . 
Visible and invi- 


Watt, James ... 





Work on the Sabbath ... 

World,Chriiitian estimate 





105 f. 


20, 1-26 

73 f. 






. 69. fiO 


, 102 f. 


, 111 If. 

, 70 ff 


65 ff. 



84. 122 

5y ff. 


26 f. 







Exodus ii. 8 

XX. 8-irj ... 
XXX. 17-21 
xl. 80-82 ... 
Leviticus xxiii. 82 ... 
Deuteronomy xxv. 8 
Joshua X. 18 
2 Samuel i. 18 
2 Kings xviii. 4 

Job viii. 11 

Psalms xxv. 14 
oxix. 18 
oxxvi. 4 ... 
Provesbs iii. 84 
Eoolesiastes x. 9 ... 
Isaiah xviii. 2 
xxiii. 8 
xxiv. 16 
XXXV. 7 
lix. 21 
Ezekiel xxvii. 8 ff. ... 

Amoa iii. 7 

St. Matthew iv. 24 
V. 6 ... 
V. 8 ... 
vi. 4 ... 
vi. 7 ... 
tL 14, 15 
Ti. 88 
Til. 11 

. 86 

. 25 
. 187 
. 187 
. 29 
. 15 
. 15 
. 84 
, 86 
. 118 

St. Matthew xi. 7 12 

xi. 16-19 ... 11 
xi 20-22 , 78 
xi.26, 27 118,124 



xxvi. 66 
„ . xxviL 19 

St. Mark ii. 25 

ii. 27 ... 

iii. 7, 8 ... 

xi. 28, 80 

xu. 5, 7 

xii. 24 

xiii. 10, 11 ... 

xili. 44 

XV. 1-20 ... 

XV. 14 

XV. 29 

xvi. 1 

xvi. 17 

xviii. 19, 20... , 

xxi. 12, 14, 15, 

28-27 186 
xxii. 28-38 ... 64 
xxiii. 4 ... 28 
xxiii. 16,17,19, 
27, 28 142 
xxiii. 25,26... 184 
xxi v. 27 ... 46 
xxiv. 42-44 ... 48 
xxv. 14-80 ... 106 
xxvi. 89 




... 12 
... 11 

. 78 
lid, 124 
... 7 
... 68 
... 109 
... 119 
... 108 
... 184 
... 142 
... 77 
... 109 
... 118 





St. Mark iv. 11 ... 

V. 18-20 ... 

vii. 1-28 ... 

vii. 8, 4 ... 

vii. 81 ... 

xi. 25 ... 
St. Luke V. 89 

vi. 1 £f. ... 

vi. 81 ... 

X. 1 

X. 19 

X. 80-85 ... 
xi. 12 ... 
xi. 88 
xii. lft-21 
xvi. 10, 12 
xxi. 88 ... 
xxiv. 49 ... 
St. John i. 10 

iu. 10, 12 
V. 89, 40 ... 
vi 12 ... 
vii. 14, 28 
vii. 58-viii. 11 
viii. 8, 4 ... 
viii. 15 ... 

viii. 29 ... 

ix. 39-41 ... 

X. 28 

xii. 86 ... 

xiii. 1-16 ... 

xiv. 8 

xiv. 9 

xiv. 16-18, 26, 

XV. 26, 27 

xvi. 7-14 ... 

xvi. 82 ... 

xviii. 20 ... 

XX. 80, 81 

xxi. 26 ... 
Acta i. 15-26 


... 128 

... 92 

... 184 

... 184 

... 77 

... 9 

... 9 

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... 74 

... 59 

... 142 

... 102 

... 142 

... 184 

... 8 

... 114 

... 22 

... 66 

... 66 

... 68 

... 64 

... 2 

... 186 

... 22 

... 48 

... 22 

• •• oO 

... 142 

... 136 

... 43 

... 141 

... 46 

... 128 

26 55 

... 55 

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... KB 

... 136 

... 3 

... 4 

... 67 

Acts XX. 86 

xxiii. 6-10 .. 

Bomans ix. 2 
xi. 26, 26, 80, 81 
xvi. 25, 27 

1 Corinthians ii. 14 

viii. 7 

2 Corinthians iv. 18 

vii. 1 
viii. 4, 5 
XL 24 
Ephesians i. 17 ... 
i. 18 ... 
ii. 12 ... 
iii 8, 6, 6 
V. 82 ... 
Phihppians ii. 8 ... 
Colossians i. 26, 27 

1 Thessalomans v. 2, 4 

V. 4 
V. 21 

2 Thessalonians ii! 1 ff. 
,^ ^ m. 6-12 

1 Timothy iii. 16 ... 

iv. 7 

2 Timothy L 14 ..*." 
„ , iv. 8 ... 
Hebrews iii. 5, 6 ... 
James iv. 6 

1 Peter v. 6 

2 Peter i. 16 
, i. 21 

1 John ii. 16 

IV. 1... ... 

Jude 14, 15 

Revelation iii. 4 ... 

xiv. 4 ... 

xxii. 1 .., 


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... 119 
... 124 
... 141 
... 67 
... 141 

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... 26 
... 102 
... 124 
... 128 
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... 119 
... 119 
... 97 
.. 119 
.. 107 
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.. 48 
107 f. 
.. 48 
.. 48 
.. 119 
.. 108 
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. 109 
. 15 
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. 141 
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